Caroline A Ryan

Learn More
BACKGROUND Increased poverty, unemployment, and migration place the Russian population at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A qualitative study was undertaken to clarify the organization of sex work and describe the likely contributions of different types of sex work to disease transmission. GOAL The goal of the study was to describe(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe self-reported types of sexual identity of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Dominican Republic, assess sociodemographics and behavioral characteristics, and measure the prevalence of HIV-1 and syphilis. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of MSM recruited from a variety of community settings. METHODS A total of 354 men agreed to(More)
A cross-sectional study conducted in 5 locations in Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Svay Pak, Sihanoukville, Battambang, and Sisophon) in 1996, compared prevalences of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 314 women seeking reproductive health services, 322 male police and military personnel, and 437 brothel-based sex workers (SWs). Among SWs, 38.7%(More)
CONTEXT One of the biggest hurdles to the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in the developing world was the price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Modification of an existing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) process to expedite review and approval of generic ARVs quickly resulted in a large number of FDA-tentatively approved ARVs available for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for HIV infection among women living in the sugar cane plantation communities (bateyes) of a large private sugar cane company in the Dominican Republic. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of sexually active female volunteers living in the bateyes. METHODS Of 98 bateyes, 23 were randomly selected and visited by a mobile(More)
The intersection of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has eroded gains made in TB control, because previously well-functioning national TB programs have been overwhelmed by the dual challenges posed by TB and HIV coinfection. The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), through its direct support of >2.4(More)
Increased awareness of the medical and social costs of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has resulted in greater attention to the control of these illnesses. STDs are responsible for a significant amount of morbidity in Morocco and have become a key target of the HIV control program. In 1996, the Ministry of Health conducted a qualitative study in order(More)
Rates of HIV-1 infection are growing rapidly, and the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections is continuing at an alarming rate, in the Russian Federation. We did a cross-sectional study of sexually transmitted infections, HIV infection, and drug use in street youth at a juvenile detention facility, adults at homeless detention centres, and women and(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital syphilis (CS) reports in Russia increased 26-fold from 1991 to 1999. Case reports included only infants who were clinical cases, had persistent serologic changes, or confirmed syphilitic stillbirth. Although not reported, policies stipulate that infants of inadequately treated or untreated mothers receive preventive penicillin(More)
BACKGROUND In countries where STI/HIV prevalence data and behavioural data are scarce UNAIDS second generation HIV surveillance guidelines recommend measuring STI/HIV prevalence and risk behaviours in vulnerable populations but do not recommend conducting these surveys concurrently because of concerns about participation rates, cost, and provision of(More)