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BACKGROUND In the very first years of life, parenting is considered to be important for the regulation of the infant's emotional and physiological states. In the present study, three-month-old infants' cortisol responses (reactivity and recovery) to a mild everyday stressor, namely being taken out of the bath, were examined in relation to the quality of(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate to what extent vacation has positive effects on health and well-being, how long such effects endure after work resumption, and how specific vacation activities and experiences affect these relationships. METHODS Based on a systematic literature search (PsycInfo, Medline) and methodological(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Research on both animals and humans is providing more and more evidence that prenatal factors can have long-term effects on development. Most human studies have examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcome (i.e. shorter pregnancies, smaller infants). The few studies that have looked at the infants' later development have(More)
Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system (SAM) and especially of her(More)
Maternal prenatal stress has been found to be related to over-activity and/or dysregulation of the HPA-system in the offspring. These effects are more readily apparent in response to novel situations. The aim of the present report was to examine whether pregnancy stress predicted HPA-axis reactions of children to the first day of school after the summer(More)
AIM To examine, in a prospective study, the influence of prenatal stress on infant temperament and problem behavior. METHOD Self-report data on stress and anxiety, and levels of cortisol in saliva were collected from nulli-parous women during pregnancy. Temperament of the child was measured at 27 months by parent report on the Infant Characteristics(More)
In this study, basal saliva cortisol was determined in women at 32 weeks of pregnancy and again at 9 months post-partum. During pregnancy, the cortisol levels of the 119 subjects were found to be elevated, with noon and evening levels more than twice as high as during the non-pregnant state. Despite the hypercortisolism, the cortisol awakening response was(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not agree on the age of appearance of the circadian rhythm (varying(More)
Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often proposed mechanism, namely that involving the HPA axis and(More)
Earlier studies assessing the possible moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on the relation between stress and actual food intake have obtained mixed results. The null findings in some of these studies might be attributed to misclassification of participants due to the use of the median splits and/or insufficient participants with extreme(More)