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The rubella virus (RV) capsid is an RNA-binding protein that functions in nucleocapsid assembly at the Golgi complex, the site of virus budding. In addition to its role in virus assembly, pools of capsid associate with mitochondria, a localization that is not consistent with virus assembly. Here we examined the interaction of capsid with mitochondria and(More)
Efforts to selectively target and disrupt established tumor vasculature have largely failed to date. We hypothesized that a vaccinia virus engineered to target cells with activation of the ras/MAPK signaling pathway (JX-594) could specifically infect and express transgenes (hGM-CSF, β-galactosidase) in tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells in humans.(More)
This study characterizes the ability of novel oncolytic rhabdoviruses (Maraba MG1) to boost natural killer (NK) cell activity. Our results demonstrate that MG1 activates NK cells via direct infection and maturation of conventional dendritic cells. Using NK depletion and conventional dendritic cells ablation studies in vivo, we established that both are(More)
Capsid proteins are structural components of virus particles. They are nucleic acid-binding proteins whose main recognized function is to package viral genomes into protective structures called nucleocapsids. Research over the last 10 years indicates that in addition to their role as genome guardians, viral capsid proteins modulate host cell signaling(More)
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown promising clinical activity when administered by direct intratumoral injection. However, natural barriers in the blood, including antibodies and complement, are likely to limit the ability to repeatedly administer OVs by the intravenous route. We demonstrate here that for a prototype of the clinical vaccinia virus based(More)
Oncolytic viruses are generally designed to be cancer selective on the basis of a single genetic mutation. JX-594 is a thymidine kinase (TK) gene-inactivated oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and lac-Z transgenes that is designed to destroy cancer cells through replication-dependent cell lysis and(More)
Tumors are complex ecosystems composed of networks of interacting 'normal' and malignant cells. It is well recognized that cytokine-mediated cross-talk between normal stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), vascular endothelial cells, immune cells, and cancer cells, influences all aspects of tumor biology. Here we demonstrate that the(More)
Oncolytic viruses designed to attack malignant cells can in addition infect and destroy tumor vascular endothelial cells. We show here that this expanded tropism of oncolytic vaccinia virus to the endothelial compartment is a consequence of VEGF-mediated suppression of the intrinsic antiviral response. VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling through Erk1/2 and Stat3 leads to(More)
Smac mimetic compounds (SMC), a class of drugs that sensitize cells to apoptosis by counteracting the activity of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, have proven safe in phase 1 clinical trials in cancer patients. However, because SMCs act by enabling transduction of pro-apoptotic signals, SMC monotherapy may be efficacious only in the subset of patients(More)
During virus assembly, the capsid proteins of RNA viruses bind to genomic RNA to form nucleocapsids. However, it is now evident that capsid proteins have additional functions that are unrelated to nucleocapsid formation. Specifically, their interactions with cellular proteins may influence signaling pathways or other events that affect virus replication.(More)