Carolina M. Herrera

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We describe the generation of two genetically related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates highly (>20,000-fold) resistant to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, SCH-417690 (formerly SCH-D). Both viruses were cross-resistant to other small molecules targeting entry via CCR5, but they were inhibited by some MAbs against the same coreceptor on(More)
BACKGROUND The rectum is particularly vulnerable to HIV transmission having only a single protective layer of columnar epithelium overlying tissue rich in activated lymphoid cells; thus, unprotected anal intercourse in both women and men carries a higher risk of infection than other sexual routes. In the absence of effective prophylactic vaccines,(More)
Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed in childhood and adolescence for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. In rodents, MPH exposure during preadolescence (postnatal days (PD) 20-35) causes decreased sensitivity to drug and natural rewards, while enhancing a negative emotional state characterized by increased sensitivity to(More)
Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed in childhood and adolescence for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. In rodents, MPH exposure during preadolescence (postnatal days (PD) 20–35) causes decreased sensitivity to drug and natural rewards, while enhancing a negative emotional state characterized by increased sensitivity to(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is the dominant subtype globally, due largely to the incidence of subtype C infections in sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia. We compared the relative replicative fitness (ex vivo) of the major (M) group of HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D, and CRF01_AE and group O isolates. To estimate pathogenic fitness,(More)
The interest for South American camelids has increased in the last years. The aim of the present research was to compare the in vitro production of Lama glama embryos using two techniques: in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For IVF technique, we compared the effect of adding or not, heparin, penicillamine and(More)
Endoproteolytic processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoproteins is an obligate part of the biosynthetic pathway that generates functional, fusion-competent Env complexes, which are then incorporated into infectious virions. We have examined the influence of cleavage on Env-specific antibody reactivity, Env(More)
The essential role of transferrin in mammalian iron metabolism is firmly established. Integral to our understanding of transferrin, studies in hypotransferrinemic mice, a model of inherited transferrin deficiency, have demonstrated that transferrin is essential for iron delivery for erythropoiesis and in the regulation of expression of hepcidin, a hormone(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein forms trimers that mediate interactions with the CD4 receptor and a co-receptor on the target cell surface, thereby triggering viral fusion with the cell membrane. Cleavage of Env into its surface, gp120, and transmembrane, gp41, moieties is necessary for activation of its(More)
The new generation of microbicide candidates is based on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. The first compounds tested were selected among ARV classes that block the early stages of viral replication cycle, either entry/fusion or reverse transcription. Recently, an additional class of ARVs acting on a later step of viral replication has entered the(More)