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The late-phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in hippocampal area CA1 requires gene expression and de novo protein synthesis but it is expressed in an input-specific manner. The 'synaptic tag' theory proposes that gene products can only be captured and utilized at synapses that have been 'tagged' by previous activity. The mechanisms underlying synaptic(More)
Sensorimotor gating, the ability to automatically filter sensory information, is deficient in a number of psychiatric disorders, yet little is known of the biochemical mechanisms underlying this critical neural process. Previously, we reported that mice expressing a constitutively active isoform of the G-protein subunit Galphas (Galphas(*)) within forebrain(More)
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 A118G) has been widely studied for its association in a variety of drug addiction and pain sensitivity phenotypes; however, the extent of these adaptations and the mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. To clarify the functional mechanisms linking the OPRM1(More)
Classical fear conditioning requires the recognition of conditioned stimuli (CS) and the association of the CS with an aversive stimulus. We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize changes in gene expression compared to naive mice in both the amygdala and the hippocampus 30 min after classical fear conditioning and 30 min after exposure(More)
Both presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations are associated with plastic changes of brain circuits, such as learning and memory, drug addiction and chronic pain. However, the dissection of the relative contributions of pre- and postsynaptic components to brain functions is difficult. We have previously shown peripheral inflammation caused both presynaptic(More)
Much is known about the neurobiology of memory storage for learned fear. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying extinction of fear memory are just beginning to be delineated. Here, we investigate the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in extinction of memory for contextual fear by using conventional and temporally regulated transgenic approaches that(More)
Consistent evidence from pharmacological and genetic studies shows that cAMP is a critical modulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the potential of the cAMP signaling pathway as a target for memory enhancement remains unclear because of contradictory findings from pharmacological and genetic approaches. To address these issues, we(More)
Proinsulin has been characterized as a neuroprotective molecule. In this work we assess the therapeutic potential of proinsulin on photoreceptor degeneration, synaptic connectivity, and functional activity of the retina in the transgenic P23H rat, an animal model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). P23H homozygous rats received an intramuscular(More)
PURPOSE The induction of proinsulin expression by transgenesis or intramuscular gene therapy has been shown previously to retard retinal degeneration in mouse and rat models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a group of inherited conditions that result in visual impairment. We investigated whether intraocular treatment with biodegradable poly(More)
INTRODUCTION Human studies suggest that smoking behavior in men may depend more on the pharmacological effects of nicotine, whereas in women, this behavior may rely more on nonpharmacological factors associated with smoking. Investigation of these parameters in mice may also reveal sex differences. METHODS Male and female C57Bl/6:129SvEv hybrid mice were(More)
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