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Meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow segments of the genome, defined as hotspots. Here, we demonstrate that a major player for hotspot specification is the Prdm9 gene. First, two mouse strains that differ in hotspot usage are polymorphic for the zinc finger DNA binding array of PRDM9. Second, the human consensus PRDM9 allele is predicted to(More)
Knowledge of the rate and pattern of new mutation is critical to the understanding of human disease and evolution. We used extensive autozygosity in a genealogically well-defined population of Hutterites to estimate the human sequence mutation rate over multiple generations. We sequenced whole genomes from 5 parent-offspring trios and identified 44 segments(More)
We estimated broad heritabilities (H(2)) and narrow heritabilities (h(2)) and conducted genomewide screens, using a novel association-based mapping approach for 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) among the Hutterites, a founder population that practices a communal lifestyle. Heritability estimates ranged from.21 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to.99 for(More)
Use of variance-component estimation for mapping of quantitative-trait loci in humans is a subject of great current interest. When only trait values, not genotypic information, are considered, variance-component estimation can also be used to estimate heritability of a quantitative trait. Inbred pedigrees present special challenges for variance-component(More)
Hypertension places a major burden on individual and public health, but the genetic basis of this complex disorder is poorly understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in Amish subjects and found strong association signals with common variants in a serine/threonine kinase gene, STK39. We(More)
HLA-G is a class Ib HLA gene with unique tissue expression pattern and immunomodulatory properties. Polymorphisms in the HLA-G promoter region have been associated with miscarriage and asthma, whereas expression levels have been associated with a wide range of pathologic conditions as well as survival of embryos after in vitro fertilization and of organs(More)
Many types of genetic analyses depend on estimates of allele frequencies. We consider the problem of allele-frequency estimation based on data from related individuals. The motivation for this work is data collected on the Hutterites, an isolated founder population, so we focus particularly on the case in which the relationships among the sampled(More)
Recombination plays a crucial role in meiosis, ensuring the proper segregation of chromosomes. Recent linkage disequilibrium (LD) and sperm-typing studies suggest that recombination rates vary tremendously across the human genome, with most events occurring in narrow "hotspots." To examine variation in fine-scale recombination patterns among individuals, we(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a source of unique individual odors that influence individual recognition, mating preferences, nesting behavior and selective block of pregnancy in animals. Such phenomena have been difficult to study in humans, because the human leukocyte antigen (HLA, human MHC) loci are the most polymorphic loci in the human(More)
HLA-G is a nonclassic, class I HLA molecule that has important immunomodulatory properties. Previously, we identified HLA-G as an asthma-susceptibility gene and discovered that the risk of asthma in a child was determined by both the child's HLA-G genotype and the mother's affection status. Here we report a SNP in the 3' untranslated region of HLA-G that(More)