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W orldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest single cause of death among women, accounting for one third of all deaths. 1 In many countries, including the United States, more women than men die every year of CVD, a fact largely unknown by physicians. 2,3 The public health impact of CVD in women is not related solely to the mortality rate, given(More)
Normal high density lipoprotein (N-HDL) is remodeled during acute phase (AP) reactions by the association of serum amyloid A (SAA) and the depletion of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. To determine the impact of this remodeling on HDL function, the capacities of N-HDL and AP-HDL to associate with and promote cholesterol efflux from human monocytic THP-1 cells were(More)
HDL protects LDL from oxidative damage known to contribute to the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. This antioxidant protection by HDL is mediated by intrinsic hydrolytic enzyme systems, by accelerated selective uptake of lipid peroxides from HDL and by antioxidant molecules. Oxidative damage suffered by HDL as a result of the transfer of reactive(More)
CVD (cardiovascular disease) is the leading cause of death for women. Considerable progress has been made in both our understanding of the complexities governing menopausal hormone therapy and our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hormone and hormone receptor function. Understanding the interplay of atherosclerosis and sex(More)
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated, respectively, with either increased risk or apparent protective effects for atherothrombosis. The ability of purified LDL and HDL to downregulate thrombin formation, a contributor to atherothrombotic processes, was assessed. Purified HDL, but not LDL,(More)
GnRH has been shown to induce premature meiotic maturation in preantral follicles of the immature estrogen-primed hypophysectomized rat. As these animals are free of circulating gonadotropins and contain large numbers of full-grown oocytes in preantral follicles, we have investigated this model to determine its usefulness in studying meiotic maturation. We(More)
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice consuming a high fat diet were used to assess the effect of endogenous and exogenous estradiol (E2) on atherosclerosis. Sexually mature female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and implanted with subcutaneous, slow-release pellets designed to release 6 microg/day of exogenous 17beta-estradiol(More)
-Current research suggests that estrogen may have primary effects on the artery wall. To investigate the mechanisms of female sex hormone actions in the artery wall, we used an isolated, perfused, rat carotid artery model to examine the effects of estradiol on the rates of accumulation of normal (N-LDL) and minimally modified (MM-LDL) low density(More)
Direct proliferative effects of estrogen (E(2)) on estrogen receptor-positive tumors are well documented; however, the potential for E(2) to mediate effects selective for the host (i.e., angiogenesis, vascular permeability, or stromal effects), which influence tumor growth and/or metastasis, has received less attention. In this study, we examine the(More)
T lymphocytes, macrophages, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) are collocalized in early atherosclerotic lesions. Using a low-endotoxin in vitro system, we observed that Ox-LDL but not native LDL induced the production, by both freshly adherent human peripheral blood monocytes and human monocytic THP-1 cells, of the alpha chemokine interleukin(More)