An optimal HIV vaccine should induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that neutralize diverse viral strains and subtypes. However, potent bnAbs develop in only a small fraction of HIV-infected individuals, all contain rare features such as extensive mutation, insertions, deletions, and/or long complementarity-determining regions, and some are… (More)
Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection commonly results in chronic or recurrent disease, suggesting that humoral memory responses are hampered. Understanding how S. aureus subverts the immune response is critical for the rescue of host natural humoral immunity and vaccine development. S. aureus expresses the virulence factor Protein A (SpA) on all… (More)
OBJECTIVE In lupus nephritis (LN), severe tubulointerstitial inflammation (TII) predicts progression to renal failure. Severe TII is associated with tertiary lymphoid neogenesis and in situ antigen-driven clonal B cell selection. The autoantigen(s) driving in situ B cell selection in TII are not known. This study was undertaken to identify the dominant… (More)
It is becoming evident that B-cell responses to particular epitopes or in particular contexts can be highly convergent at the molecular level. That is, depending on the epitope targeted, persons of diverse genetic backgrounds and immunological histories can use highly similar, stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs) for a particular response. In some cases,… (More)
Although dogma predicts that under normal circumstances, potentially offensive autoreactive cells are silenced by mechanisms of immune tolerance, islet antigen-reactive B lymphocytes are known to play a crucial role in the development of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, participation of these cells in T1D may reflect escape from silencing… (More)
Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence… (More)
The major goal in vaccination is establishment of long-term, prophylactic humoral memory to a pathogen. Two major components to long-lived humoral memory are plasma cells for the production of specific immunoglobulin and memory B cells that survey for their specific antigen in the periphery for later affinity maturation, proliferation, and differentiation.… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005815.].