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The craniate head is innervated by cranial sensory and motor neurons. Cranial sensory neurons stem from the neurogenic placodes and neural crest and are seen as evolutionary innovations crucial in fulfilling the feeding and respiratory needs of the craniate "new head." In contrast, cranial motoneurons that are located in the hindbrain and motorize the head(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to an abnormal polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of huntingtin protein (Exp-Htt). This expansion causes protein aggregation and neuronal dysfunction and death. Transcriptional dysregulation due to Exp-Htt participates in neuronal death in HD. Here, using the R6/2 transgenic mouse(More)
BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a polyglutamine-expanded related neurodegenerative disease. Despite the ubiquitous expression of expanded, polyQ-Huntingtin (ExpHtt) in the brain, striatal neurons present a higher susceptibility to the mutation. A commonly admitted hypothesis is that Dopaminergic inputs participate to this vulnerability. We(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) results from an abnormal polyglutamine extension in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein. This mutation causes preferential degeneration of striatal projection neurons. We previously demonstrated, in vitro, that dopaminergic D2 receptor stimulation acted synergistically with mutated huntingtin (expHtt) to increase(More)
Neural crest-like cells (NCLC) that express the HNK-1 antigen and form body pigment cells were previously identified in diverse ascidian species. Here we investigate the embryonic origin, migratory activity, and neural crest related gene expression patterns of NCLC in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. HNK-1 expression first appeared at about the time of(More)
Summary The central nervous system (cerebral ganglion) of adult ascidians is linked to the neural gland complex (NGC), which consists of a dorsal tubercle, a ciliated duct and a neural gland. The function of the NGC has been the subject of much debate. The recent publication of the complete genomic sequence of Ciona intestinalis provides new opportunities(More)
In extant chordates, the overall patterning along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the neural tube is remarkably conserved. It has thus been proposed that four domains corresponding to the vertebrate presumptive forebrain, midbrain-hindbrain transition, hindbrain, and spinal cord were already present in the common chordate ancestor. To obtain(More)
Dopamine is a major neuromodulator synthesized by numerous cell populations in the vertebrate forebrain and midbrain. Owing to the simple organization of its larval nervous system, ascidian tunicates provide a useful model to investigate the anatomy, neurogenesis and differentiation of the dopaminergic neural network underlying the stereotypical swimming(More)
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