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BACKGROUND The incorporation of silica within the plant cell wall has been well documented by botanists and materials scientists; however, the means by which plants are able to transport silicon and control its polymerization, together with the roles of silica in situ, are not fully understood. RECENT PROGRESS Recent studies into the mechanisms by which(More)
Silica skeletal architectures in diatoms are characterized by remarkable morphological and nanostructural details. Silk proteins from spiders and silkworms form strong and intricate self-assembling fibrous biomaterials in nature. We combined the features of silk with biosilica through the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel family of chimeric(More)
All metazoan animals comprise a body plan of different complexity. Since--especially based on molecular and cell biological data--it is well established that all metazoan phyla, including the Porifera (sponges), evolved from a common ancestor the search for common, basic principles of pattern formation (body plan) in all phyla began. Common to all metazoan(More)
The objectives of this paper are to discuss the characterization of biogenic silica in terms of structural properties, and to elucidate the mechanisms of structural organization within biological systems. The scale of organization is a critical factor in the characterization of biosilicification processes, and order at the nanometre, micrometre and(More)
Protein adhesion plays a major role in determining the biocompatibility of materials. The first stage of implant integration is the adhesion of protein followed by cell attachment. Surface modification of implants (surface chemistry and topography) to induce and control protein and cell adhesion is currently of great interest. This communication presents(More)
Protein adsorption behavior is at the heart of many of today's research fields including biotechnology and materials science. With understanding of protein-surface interactions, control over the conformation and orientation of immobilized species may ultimately allow tailor-made surfaces to be generated. In this contribution protein-surface interactions(More)
This review concerns the importance of length and time on physicochemical interactions between living tissue and biomaterials that occur on implantation. The review provides information on material host interactions, materials for medical applications and cell surface interactions, and then details the extent of knowledge concerning the role(s) that surface(More)
Considerable research has been directed toward identifying the mechanisms involved in biosilicification to understand and possibly mimic the process for the production of superior silica-based materials while simultaneously minimizing pollution and energy costs. Molecules isolated from diatoms and, most recently sponges, thought to be key to this process(More)
Biological organisms are able to direct the formation of patterned and hierarchical biomineral structures. Extractable organic materials have been found entrapped in diatom, sponge and plant biosilica, some of which have been isolated by selective chemical dissolution methods and their composition and structure studied. Information gained from the(More)
Osteoinductive and biodegradable composite biomaterials for bone regeneration were prepared by combining silk fibroin with silica particles. The influence of these composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards(More)