Carole Bougault

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Articular cartilage is physiologically exposed to repeated loads. The mechanical properties of cartilage are due to its extracellular matrix, and homeostasis is maintained by the sole cell type found in cartilage, the chondrocyte. Although mechanical forces clearly control the functions of articular chondrocytes, the biochemical pathways that mediate(More)
Articular cartilage contains an extracellular matrix with characteristic macromolecules such as type II collagen. Because this tissue is avascular and mature chondrocytes do not proliferate, cartilage lesions have a limited capacity for healing after trauma. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is widely used for the treatment of patients with focal(More)
The culture of chondrocytes embedded within agarose hydrogels maintains chondrocytic phenotype over extended periods and allows analysis of the chondrocyte response to mechanical forces. The mechanisms involved in the transduction of a mechanical stimulus to a physiological process are not completely deciphered. We present protocols to prepare and(More)
BACKGROUND Articular cartilage is exposed to high mechanical loads under normal physiological conditions and articular chondrocytes regulate the composition of cartilaginous matrix, in response to mechanical signals. However, the intracellular pathways involved in mechanotransduction are still being defined. Using the well-characterized chondrocyte/agarose(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as multifunctional regulators in morphogenesis during development. In particular they play a determinant role in the formation of cartilage molds and their replacement by bone during endochondral ossification. In cell culture, BMP-2 favors chondrogenic expression and promotes hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes. In(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 are multifunctional cytokines both proposed as stimulants for cartilage repair. Thus it is crucial to closely examine and compare their effects on the expression of key markers of the chondrocyte phenotype, at the gene and protein level. In this study, the expression of alpha 10(More)
CONTEXT Mechanical properties are essential for biological functions of the hyaline cartilage such as energy dissipation and diffusion of solutes. Mechanical properties are primarily dependent on the hierarchical organization of the two major extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecular components of the cartilage: the fibrillar collagen network and the(More)
Tendons are the structures that attach muscles to bones and transmit mechanical forces. Tendon cells are composed of mature tenocytes and a rare population of tendon stem cells. Both cell types ensure homeostasis and repair of tendon extracellular matrix to guarantee its specific mechanical properties. Moreover, tendon cells seem to present a marked(More)
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder that initiates at the enthesis, where tendons attach to bone through a fibrocartilage zone. At late stages, excessive bone apposition appears within the diseased enthesis. Because Wnt5a participates to normal bone formation and appears related to inflammatory processes, we investigated the(More)
Atherosclerotic plaque calcification varies from early, diffuse microcalcifications to a bone-like tissue formed by endochondral ossification. Recently, a paradigm has emerged suggesting that if the bone metaplasia stabilizes the plaques, microcalcifications are harmful. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an ectoenzyme necessary for(More)