Carolanne E. Milligan

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Members of the CED-3/interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) protease family have been implicated in cell death in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this report, we show that peptide inhibitors of ICE arrest the programmed cell death of motoneurons in vitro as a result of trophic factor deprivation and in vivo during the period of naturally(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that results in the progressive loss of motoneurons (MNs) in the CNS. Several survival and death mechanisms of MNs have been characterized and it has been determined that MNs do not appear to mount a complete stress response, as determined by the lack of heat shock protein 70(More)
The ability to mount a successful stress response in the face of injury is critical to the long-term viability of individual cells and to the organism in general. The stress response, characterized in part by the upregulation of heat shock proteins, is compromised in several neurodegenerative disorders and in some neuronal populations, including motoneurons(More)
During development, motoneurons (MNs) undergo a highly stereotyped, temporally and spatially defined period of programmed cell death (PCD), the result of which is the loss of 40-50% of the original neuronal population. Those MNs that survive are thought to reflect the successful acquisition of limiting amounts of trophic factors from the target. In(More)
Proper sensing of stress and the initiation of the stress response are critical to maintaining cell viability in response to noxious stimuli. Induction of the stress response prior to the exposure of a lethal stress (preconditioning) can be protective. Heat shock proteins (Hsps), the main products of the stress response, are considered to be responsible for(More)
The clarification of mechanisms of developmental cell death may provide hints in the prevention of pathological neuronal death. The execution phase of cell death has been extensively characterized; however, events that occur prior to this phase are less well understood. Previous studies have suggested that terminally differentiated neurons induced to die in(More)
Motoneurons (MNs) in the cervical spinal cord of the chicken embryo undergo programmed cell death (PCD) between embryonic day (E) 4 and E5. The intracellular molecules regulating this early phase of PCD remain unknown. Here we show that introduction of Bcl-2 by a replication-competent avian retroviral vector prevented MN degeneration at E4.5, whereas the(More)
Several studies have shown that both neuronal and glial cells express functional thrombin receptors as well as prothrombin transcripts. Recently, we (and others) have shown that alpha-thrombin induces apoptotic cell death in different neuronal cell types, including motoneurons, in culture. Thrombin-induced effects on different cells are mediated through the(More)
Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also(More)
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