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Neutrophil chemotaxis requires excitatory signals at the front and inhibitory signals at the back of cells, which regulate cell migration in a chemotactic gradient field. We have previously shown that ATP release via pannexin 1 (PANX1) channels and autocrine stimulation of P2Y2 receptors contribute to the excitatory signals at the front. Here we show that(More)
The choice of reliable reference genes is a prerequisite for valid results when analyzing gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). This method is frequently applied to study gene expression patterns in immune cells, yet a thorough validation of potential reference genes is still lacking for most leukocyte subtypes and most models of their in(More)
A key step in the pathogenesis of sepsis is the excessive and uncontrolled activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). An inflammation-controlling function of adenosine receptors has been presumed; however, their role in PMN of sepsis patients is poorly defined. We investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in resting and lipopolysaccharide(More)
The phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) exerts multiple beneficial immunomodulatory effects in states of hyperinflammation. However, the exact mechanism of action still remains elusive, and the clinical effects of PTX cannot be reliably predicted. In immune cells, the G protein-coupled adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) exerts strong(More)
BACKGROUND We analyzed prospectively whether MGMT (O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) mRNA expression gains prognostic/predictive impact independent of MGMT promoter methylation in malignant glioma patients undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide or temozolomide alone. As DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) are the enzymes(More)
OBJECTIVE Acquired glucocorticoid resistance frequently complicates the therapy of sepsis. It leads to an exaggerated proinflammatory response and has been related to altered expression profiles of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms glucocorticoid receptor-α (mediating anti-inflammatory effects) and glucocorticoid receptor-β (acting as a dominant negative(More)
The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species by excessively activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) is a key step in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Potent action of adenosine in inhibiting cytotoxic PMN functions has been documented. Recent data, however provide evidence that in sepsis a diminished capability of adenosine to inhibit the generation of(More)
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone mainly produced by the stomach, which strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) via the GH secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) located in the hypothalamus. It has been reported to exert performance-enhancing effects on myocardial function, and as both ghrelin and GHSR-1a are expressed in myocardial tissues, the(More)
T cells play a central role in host defense. ATP release and autocrine feedback via purinergic receptors has been shown to regulate T cell function. However, the sources of the ATP that drives this process are not known. We found that stimulation of T cells triggers a spike in cellular ATP production that doubles intracellular ATP levels in <30 s and causes(More)
BACKGROUND Galectins are a family of soluble lectins expressed in a variety of tissues, which play many important regulatory roles in inflammation, immunity, and cancer. The up-regulation of galectin-3 in hypertrophied hearts and the development of fibrosis have been shown in experimental studies. Increased galectin-3 levels are associated with poor(More)