Carola G. Vinuesa

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Follicular helper (T(FH)) cells provide crucial signals to germinal center B cells undergoing somatic hypermutation and selection that results in affinity maturation. Tight control of T(FH) numbers maintains self tolerance. We describe a population of Foxp3(+)Blimp-1(+)CD4(+) T cells constituting 10-25% of the CXCR5(high)PD-1(high)CD4(+) T cells found in(More)
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells provide selection signals to germinal center B cells, which is essential for long-lived antibody responses. High CXCR5 and low CCR7 expression facilitates their homing to B cell follicles and distinguishes them from T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells. Here, we showed that Bcl-6 directs Tfh cell differentiation:(More)
Somatic hypermutation introduces point mutations into immunoglobulin genes in germinal centre B cells during an immune response. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and completed by error-prone processing of the resulting uracils by mismatch and base excision repair factors. Somatic hypermutation(More)
Despite the sequencing of the human and mouse genomes, few genetic mechanisms for protecting against autoimmune disease are currently known. Here we systematically screen the mouse genome for autoimmune regulators to isolate a mouse strain, sanroque, with severe autoimmune disease resulting from a single recessive defect in a previously unknown mechanism(More)
During T cell-dependent responses, B cells can either differentiate extrafollicularly into short-lived plasma cells or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GCs). Interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required for GC formation and for selection of somatically mutated GC B cells. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to play a role in Tfh(More)
OBJECTIVE In the sanroque mouse model of lupus, pathologic germinal centers (GCs) arise due to increased numbers of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, resulting in high-affinity anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies that cause end-organ inflammation, such as glomerulonephritis. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that this pathway could(More)
Production of high-affinity pathogenic autoantibodies appears to be central to the pathogenesis of lupus. Because normal high-affinity antibodies arise from germinal centers (GCs), aberrant selection of GC B cells, caused by either failure of negative selection or enhanced positive selection by follicular helper T (T(FH)) cells, is a plausible explanation(More)
Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells support high affinity and long-term antibody responses. Here we found that within circulating CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells in humans and mice, the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset has a partial Tfh effector phenotype, whereas CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) cells have a resting phenotype. The circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset was indicative of active Tfh(More)
T-cell help for B cells is essential for high-affinity antibody responses and B-cell memory. Recently, the identity of a discrete follicular population of T cells that has a crucial role in this process has become clearer. Similar to primed CD4(+) T cells in the tonsils and memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood, this follicular population of T cells(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized microenvironments formed after infection where activated B cells can mutate their B-cell receptors to undergo affinity maturation. A stringent process of selection allows high affinity, non-self-reactive B cells to become long-lived memory B cells and plasma cells. While the precise mechanism of selection is still(More)