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Tight junctions create a paracellular barrier in epithelial and endothelial cells protecting them from the external environment. Two different classes of integral membrane proteins constitute the tight junction strands in epithelial cells and endothelial cells, occludin and members of the claudin protein family. In addition, cytoplasmic scaffolding(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease whose symptoms are caused by an inflammatory invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). The molecular pathogenesis of MS includes an increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) along with an inability of the BBB to fulfill its normal function of protecting the CNS. The cerebellar BBB(More)
During stroke the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged which can result in vasogenic brain edema and inflammation. The reduced blood supply leads to decreased delivery of oxygen and glucose to affected areas of the brain. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) can cause upregulation of glucose uptake of brain endothelial cells. In this letter, we investigated(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), made up of endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain, maintains the microenvironment of the central nervous system. During ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI), cellular disruption leading to mechanical insult results to the BBB being compromised. Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) is the most commonly used in vitro(More)
Due to the high mortality incident brought about by traumatic brain injury (TBI), methods that would enable one to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in it are useful for treatment. There are both in vivo and in vitro methods available for this purpose. In vivo models can mimic actual head injury as it occurs during TBI. However, in vivo(More)
Epithelial and endothelial cells (EC) are building paracellular barriers which protect the tissue from the external and internal environment. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consisting of EC, astrocyte end-feet, pericytes and the basal membrane is responsible for the protection and homeostasis of the brain parenchyma. In vitro BBB models are common tools to(More)
Claudin-5, an integral tight junction protein component, plays a critical role in permeability of the endothelial cell barrier. Recently, we have shown that claudin-5 protein is down-regulated by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF alpha and its levels restored by dexamethasone treatment. In order to investigate the regulation of claudin-5 at the(More)
Homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment is maintained by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which regulates the transport of molecules from blood into brain and back. Many disorders change the functionality and integrity of the BBB. Glucocorticoids are being used sucessfully in the treatment of some disorders while their effects on(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that have inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on a wide variety of cells. They are used as therapy for inflammatory disease and as a common agent against edema. The blood brain barrier (BBB), comprising microvascular endothelial cells, serves as a permeability screen between the blood and the brain. As such,(More)
The mammary glands of prepubertal estrogen receptor (ER)beta-- mice are morphologically indistinguishable from those of WT littermates. It appears that, although ERbeta is expressed in the mouse mammary gland, it is not involved in ductal growth of the gland. In this study, we examined the possibility that ERbeta has a role in the differentiated function of(More)