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New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus throughout life by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), and neurogenesis is a plastic process responsive to external stimuli. We show that canonical Notch signaling through RBP-J is required for hippocampal neurogenesis. Notch signaling distinguishes morphologically distinct Sox2(+) NSCs, and within these(More)
Mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is often accompanied by granule cell dispersion (GCD), a widening of the granule cell layer. The molecular determinants of GCD are poorly understood. Here, we used an animal model to study whether GCD results from an increased dentate neurogenesis associated with an abnormal migration of the newly generated granule cells.(More)
The reelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role during the development of laminated structures in the mammalian brain. Reelin, which is synthesized and secreted by Cajal-Retzius cells in the marginal zone of the neocortex and hippocampus, is proposed to act as a stop signal for migrating neurons. Here we show that a decreased expression of reelin mRNA by(More)
Sensory information acquired via the large facial whiskers is processed and relayed in the whisker-to-barrel pathway, which shows multiple somatotopic maps of the receptor periphery. These maps consist of individual structural modules, the development of which may require intact cortical lamination. In the present study we examined the whisker-to-barrel(More)
Metabotropic GABA(B) receptors mediate slow inhibitory effects presynaptically and postsynaptically. Using preembedding immunohistochemical methods combined with quantitative analysis of GABA(B) receptor subunit immunoreactivity, this study provides a detailed description of the cellular and subcellular localization of GABA(B1a/b) and GABA(B2) in the rat(More)
Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus is a frequent feature of Ammon's horn sclerosis (AHS) which is often associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It has been hypothesized that GCD may be caused by an abnormal migration of newly born granule cells. To test this hypothesis, we used markers of proliferation and neurogenesis and(More)
The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan is a major component of brain extracellular matrix during development. Neurocan is primarily synthesized by neurons and has the ability to interact with cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of cell migration and axonal growth. Within the first weeks postnatally, neurocan expression is strongly(More)
Cortical migration defects are often associated with epilepsy. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), granule cell dispersion (GCD), a migration defect of dentate granule cells, is frequently observed. Little is known how GCD develops and to which extent it contributes to the development of seizure activity. Since the reelin-deficient reeler mouse mutant(More)
The mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission and intrinsic neuronal excitability are well characterized; however, the mechanisms that promote disease-causing neural network dysfunction are poorly defined. We generated mice with targeted neuron type-specific expression of a gain-of-function variant of the neurotransmitter receptor for(More)
CASK is a multi-domain scaffolding protein that interacts with the transcription factor TBR1 and regulates expression of genes involved in cortical development such as RELN. Here we describe a previously unreported X-linked brain malformation syndrome caused by mutations of CASK. All five affected individuals with CASK mutations had congenital or postnatal(More)