Carol Worthman

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BACKGROUND The Great Smoky Mountains Study of youth focuses on the relationship between the development of psychiatric disorder and the need for and use of mental health services. METHODS A multistage, overlapping cohorts design was used, in which 4500 of the 11758 children aged 9, 11, and 13 years in an 11-county area of the southeastern United States(More)
Sex differences in age- and puberty-related maturation of human brain structure have been observed in typically developing age-matched boys and girls. Because girls mature 1-2 years earlier than boys, the present study aimed at assessing sex differences in brain structure by studying 80 adolescent boys and girls matched on sexual maturity, rather than age.(More)
BACKGROUND Previous work has indicated that the 2:1 female:male sex ratio in unipolar depressive disorders does not emerge until some time between ages 10 and 15. METHODS Data from four annual waves of data collection from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) involving children aged nine to 16 were employed. RESULTS Pubertal status better predicted(More)
BACKGROUND Throughout their reproductive years, women suffer from a higher prevalence of depression than men. Before puberty, however, this is not the case. In an earlier study, we found that reaching Tanner Stage III of puberty was associated with increased levels of depression in girls. This paper examines whether the morphological changes associated with(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify age-related trajectories of obesity from childhood into adolescence, and to test the association of these trajectories with the development of psychiatric disorders (conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, depression, and anxiety). METHODS White children (N = 991) 9(More)
Newcomers acclimatizing to high altitude and adult male Tibetan high altitude natives have increased ventilation relative to sea level natives at sea level. However, Andean and Rocky Mountain high altitude natives have an intermediate level of ventilation lower than that of newcomers and Tibetan high altitude natives although generally higher than that of(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of various aspects of puberty on risk of using alcohol and developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS Data come from the Great Smoky Mountains Study, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 1420 youth aged 9-13 at recruitment. Participants were interviewed annually to age 16. A parent was also interviewed.(More)
CONTEXT Former child soldiers are considered in need of special mental health interventions. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the mental health of child soldiers compared with civilian children in armed conflicts. OBJECTIVE To compare the mental health status of former child soldiers with that of children who have never been conscripts of(More)
Cortisol measures often are used to examine variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity as well as broader patterns of differential health. However, substantial within-individual variation renders single cortisol measurements unreliable as estimates for probing differences between individuals and groups. A standard practice to clarify(More)