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BACKGROUND The Great Smoky Mountains Study of youth focuses on the relationship between the development of psychiatric disorder and the need for and use of mental health services. METHODS A multistage, overlapping cohorts design was used, in which 4500 of the 11758 children aged 9, 11, and 13 years in an 11-county area of the southeastern United States(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related(More)
This study was designed to pursue three objectives: 1) investigate the impact of culture change on children and adolescents in Western Samoa; 2) introduce a cross-cultural perspective to studies of psychosocial stress and immune function; and 3) evaluate the utility of minimally invasive methods for assessing immune function. Seven hundred sixty individuals(More)
OBJECTIVE Study 1: Introduce and validate a method for measuring EBV p18-VCA antibodies in whole blood spots to provide a minimally invasive marker of cell-mediated immune function. Study 2: Apply this method to a large community-based study of psychopathology in children and adolescents. METHODS The EBV antibody method was evaluated through analysis of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous work has indicated that the 2:1 female:male sex ratio in unipolar depressive disorders does not emerge until some time between ages 10 and 15. METHODS Data from four annual waves of data collection from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) involving children aged nine to 16 were employed. RESULTS Pubertal status better predicted(More)
Comparative endocrine studies have notably advanced understanding of ecological factors that contribute to variation in human reproductive function. Such research has relied on methodological advances that permit hormone determinations in samples that are easily and safely collected, stored, and transported, most recently on measurement of steroids in(More)
Newcomers acclimatizing to high altitude and adult male Tibetan high altitude natives have increased ventilation relative to sea level natives at sea level. However, Andean and Rocky Mountain high altitude natives have an intermediate level of ventilation lower than that of newcomers and Tibetan high altitude natives although generally higher than that of(More)
Reproductive experiences for women in today's affluent Western nations differ from those of women in hunting and gathering societies, who continue the ancestral human pattern. These differences parallel commonly accepted reproductive risk factors for cancers of the breast, endometrium and ovary. Nutritional practices, exercise requirements, and body(More)
BACKGROUND Throughout their reproductive years, women suffer from a higher prevalence of depression than men. Before puberty, however, this is not the case. In an earlier study, we found that reaching Tanner Stage III of puberty was associated with increased levels of depression in girls. This paper examines whether the morphological changes associated with(More)
Sex differences in age- and puberty-related maturation of human brain structure have been observed in typically developing age-matched boys and girls. Because girls mature 1-2 years earlier than boys, the present study aimed at assessing sex differences in brain structure by studying 80 adolescent boys and girls matched on sexual maturity, rather than age.(More)