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The receptor-ligand pairs CD28-B7 and CD40-gp39 are essential for the initiation and amplification of T-cell-dependent immune responses. CD28-B7 interactions provide 'second signals' necessary for optimal T-cell activation and IL-2 production, whereas CD40-gp39 signals co-stimulate B-cell, macrophage, endothelial cell and T-cell activation. Nonetheless,(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Despite aggressive therapy with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, nearly all patients succumb to disease within 2 years. Several studies have supported the presence of stem-like cells in brain tumor cultures that are CD133-positive, are capable of self-renewal, and(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates osteoblasts to produce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), causing bone resorption. In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, elevated serum levels of IL-6 normalize after resection of parathyroid tumours. Because IL-6 is also expressed in normal parathyroids and in other endocrine cells (adrenal and(More)
Tolerance to self is a necessary attribute of the immune system. It is thought that most autoreactive T cells are deleted in the thymus during the process of negative selection. However, peripheral tolerance mechanisms also exist to prevent development of autoimmune diseases against peripheral self-Ags. It has been proposed that T cells develop tolerance to(More)
BACKGROUND Transplantation of human islets has been successful clinically. Since human islets are scarce, we are studying microencapsulated porcine islet xenografts in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We have evaluated the cellular immune response in NOD mice with and without dual costimulatory blockade. METHODS Alginate-poly-L-lysine-encapsulated adult(More)
BACKGROUND 4-1BB (CD137) is a T cell costimulatory molecule that promotes T cell activation. In this study, we investigated the role of 4-1BB costimulation in allogeneic T cell responses. METHODS Vascularized heart transplantation, allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), and graft versus host disease models were used to examine 4-1BB and 4-1BBL(More)
Cancer stem cells, capable of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, influence tumor behavior through a complex balance of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. Mechanisms regulating the dynamics of stem cells and their progeny in human cancer are poorly understood. In Drosophila, mutation of brain tumor (brat) leads to loss of normal asymmetric(More)
BACKGROUND Blockade of the CD40 and CD28 pathways is a powerful strategy to inhibit CD4-mediated alloimmune responses. In this study, we examine the relative roles of the CD40 and CD28 pathways on CD4-mediated allograft rejection responses, and further characterize the role of these pathways on CD4+ T-cell activation, priming for cytokine production, and(More)
Hypoxia and necrosis are fundamental features of glioblastoma (GBM) and their emergence is critical for the rapid biological progression of this fatal tumor; yet, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have suggested that vaso-occlusion following intravascular thrombosis could initiate or propagate hypoxia and necrosis in GBM. Tissue factor (TF),(More)
BACKGROUND The prompt and vigorous immune response to xenogenic tissue remains a significant barrier to clinical xenotransplantation. Simultaneous blockade of the CD28 and CD40 costimulatory pathways has been shown to dramatically inhibit the immune response to alloantigen. METHODS . In this study, we investigated the ability of simultaneous blockade of(More)