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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Despite aggressive therapy with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, nearly all patients succumb to disease within 2 years. Several studies have supported the presence of stem-like cells in brain tumor cultures that are CD133-positive, are capable of self-renewal, and(More)
BACKGROUND Transplantation of human islets has been successful clinically. Since human islets are scarce, we are studying microencapsulated porcine islet xenografts in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We have evaluated the cellular immune response in NOD mice with and without dual costimulatory blockade. METHODS Alginate-poly-L-lysine-encapsulated adult(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates osteoblasts to produce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), causing bone resorption. In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, elevated serum levels of IL-6 normalize after resection of parathyroid tumours. Because IL-6 is also expressed in normal parathyroids and in other endocrine cells (adrenal and(More)
The receptor-ligand pairs CD28-B7 and CD40-gp39 are essential for the initiation and amplification of T-cell-dependent immune responses. CD28-B7 interactions provide 'second signals' necessary for optimal T-cell activation and IL-2 production, whereas CD40-gp39 signals co-stimulate B-cell, macrophage, endothelial cell and T-cell activation. Nonetheless,(More)
Angiogenesis is a critical physiologic process that is appropriated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about how this process is specifically regulated in the brain. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI1) is a brain-predominant seven-transmembrane protein that contains five antiangiogenic thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSR). We recently showed that BAI1(More)
BACKGROUND It has been hypothesized that regimens to induce transplantation tolerance and long-term hematopoietic chimerism require recipient conditioning with whole body irradiation or a cytoablative regimen to create space within the marrow microenvironment to permit pluripotent stem cell engraftment. The purpose of this study was to determine if(More)
BACKGROUND The prompt and vigorous immune response to xenogenic tissue remains a significant barrier to clinical xenotransplantation. Simultaneous blockade of the CD28 and CD40 costimulatory pathways has been shown to dramatically inhibit the immune response to alloantigen. METHODS . In this study, we investigated the ability of simultaneous blockade of(More)
Hypoxia and necrosis are fundamental features of glioblastoma (GBM) and their emergence is critical for the rapid biological progression of this fatal tumor; yet, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have suggested that vaso-occlusion following intravascular thrombosis could initiate or propagate hypoxia and necrosis in GBM. Tissue factor (TF),(More)
Tolerance to self is a necessary attribute of the immune system. It is thought that most autoreactive T cells are deleted in the thymus during the process of negative selection. However, peripheral tolerance mechanisms also exist to prevent development of autoimmune diseases against peripheral self-Ags. It has been proposed that T cells develop tolerance to(More)
BACKGROUND The long-term metabolic function of microencapsulated xenogeneic adult porcine islets (API) was assessed in a murine model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS API were encapsulated in barium-gelled alginate and transplanted intraperitoneally in diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice given no immunosuppression or given costimulatory blockade(More)