Carol Tucker-Burden

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The receptor-ligand pairs CD28-B7 and CD40-gp39 are essential for the initiation and amplification of T-cell-dependent immune responses. CD28-B7 interactions provide 'second signals' necessary for optimal T-cell activation and IL-2 production, whereas CD40-gp39 signals co-stimulate B-cell, macrophage, endothelial cell and T-cell activation. Nonetheless,(More)
Tolerance to self is a necessary attribute of the immune system. It is thought that most autoreactive T cells are deleted in the thymus during the process of negative selection. However, peripheral tolerance mechanisms also exist to prevent development of autoimmune diseases against peripheral self-Ags. It has been proposed that T cells develop tolerance to(More)
BACKGROUND If alginate microcapsules are to be used clinically for therapeutic cell transplants, capsule formulations must be designed to enhance optimal biocompatibility and immune acceptance. METHODS Microcapsules were generated using highly purified, endotoxin-free, ultra-low viscosity, high mannuronic acid alginate. The capsules differed with respect(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Despite aggressive therapy with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, nearly all patients succumb to disease within 2 years. Several studies have supported the presence of stem-like cells in brain tumor cultures that are CD133-positive, are capable of self-renewal, and(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates osteoblasts to produce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), causing bone resorption. In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, elevated serum levels of IL-6 normalize after resection of parathyroid tumours. Because IL-6 is also expressed in normal parathyroids and in other endocrine cells (adrenal and(More)
BACKGROUND 4-1BB (CD137) is a T cell costimulatory molecule that promotes T cell activation. In this study, we investigated the role of 4-1BB costimulation in allogeneic T cell responses. METHODS Vascularized heart transplantation, allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), and graft versus host disease models were used to examine 4-1BB and 4-1BBL(More)
BACKGROUND Transplantation of human islets has been successful clinically. Since human islets are scarce, we are studying microencapsulated porcine islet xenografts in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We have evaluated the cellular immune response in NOD mice with and without dual costimulatory blockade. METHODS Alginate-poly-L-lysine-encapsulated adult(More)
Cancer stem cells, capable of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, influence tumor behavior through a complex balance of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. Mechanisms regulating the dynamics of stem cells and their progeny in human cancer are poorly understood. In Drosophila, mutation of brain tumor (brat) leads to loss of normal asymmetric(More)
BACKGROUND Blockade of the CD40 and CD28 pathways is a powerful strategy to inhibit CD4-mediated alloimmune responses. In this study, we examine the relative roles of the CD40 and CD28 pathways on CD4-mediated allograft rejection responses, and further characterize the role of these pathways on CD4+ T-cell activation, priming for cytokine production, and(More)
The cell membrane establishes an important paradigm for the molecular engineering of coatings for implantable devices because of its intrinsic biocompatibility and ability to act as a template for the assembly of diverse membrane-associated macromolecules. A stabilized membrane-mimetic film was assembled on alginate/Ca(2+) hydrogel microcapsules by in situ(More)