Carol Traynor

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Geographic Information System (GIS) software evolved out of the fields of geography, cartography, and database management. As a result, off-the-shelf GIS software requires the user to have or to acquire considerable knowledge of these fields. Navigation through the interfaces of most off-the-shelf GIS software is difficult because they support a system(More)
This paper presents au empirical study of a programming by demonstration language for a geographic information system (GIS). The long-term goal of the project is to enable non-technical end users to exercise the capabilities of a GIS without having to learn the technical concepts that are embedded in most traditional GIS interfaces (Traynor & Williams,(More)
The phenomenon we call "programming" is not limited to regular professional programmers. Farthest away are end user programmers, who program just as a means to an end in their own professions. In between are people with very diverse backgrounds, general education, and programming knowledge. Like professional programmers, they write programs for others as(More)
Many software applications, especially ones that arise out of technical domains, are difficult for non-technical end users to comprehend and use. Such users are often dependent on experts who serve as intermediaries between them and the software. Geographical information systems (GIS), for example, frequently require such intermediaries. This project(More)
End-User Programming has not lived up to expectations: today's computer world is dominated by "fatware" programs with hundreds of features, not simple applications built by the users themselves. Yet a strange convergence is taking place between the roles of programmers and end-users. Professional programmers are now end users of complex IDEs (Integrated(More)
That enzyme fractions derived from animals chronically fed alcohol can alter the metabolism of carcinogenic xenobiotic compounds has been documented. To further understand this relationship the mutagenicity of 3 aromatic amines was determined in the Ames test, employing activation systems derived from rats maintained on an alcohol-containing liquid diet, an(More)
The effects of chronic ethanol feeding of rats on the ability of liver fractions to modulate the bacterial mutagenicity of three dinitropyrene isomers (1,3-, 1,6- and 1,8-DNP), which require bacterial enzymes but not an exogenous enzyme source for activation, were studied. The mutagenicity of the DNP isomers toward S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 was(More)