Carol S. Rubin

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In April 2004, one of the largest aflatoxicosis outbreaks occurred in rural Kenya, resulting in 317 cases and 125 deaths. Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the(More)
OBJECTIVE This analysis estimates the first nationally representative prevalence of noise-induced hearing threshold shifts (NITS) among US children. Historically, NITS has not been considered a common cause of childhood hearing problems. Among children, NITS can be a progressive problem with continued exposure to excessive noise, which can lead to(More)
Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater(More)
Consecutive outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 caused > 150 deaths. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization convened a workgroup of international experts and health officials in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2005. After discussions concerning what is known about aflatoxins, the(More)
OBJECTIVES During January-June 2004, an aflatoxicosis outbreak in eastern Kenya resulted in 317 cases and 125 deaths. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for contamination of implicated maize and, for the first time, quantitated biomarkers associated with acute aflatoxicosis. DESIGN We administered questionnaires regarding maize(More)
BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common component of composites and dental sealants. The potential exists for human exposure after sealant placement. METHODS The authors prospectively enrolled 15 men in an exposure assessment study; 14 completed the study. After placement of clinically appropriate amounts of one of two sealants, the authors measured BPA(More)
BACKGROUND Accidental contamination with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) of the Michigan food supply in 1973 led to the exposure of more than 4000 individuals and to formation of the PBB cohort registry (1976-1979). At enrollment, measurements were taken of serum PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. METHODS We(More)
The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier(More)
BACKGROUND Sixteen children diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1997 and 2002 lived in Churchill County, Nevada, at the time of or before their illness. Considering the county population and statewide cancer rate, fewer than two cases would be expected. OBJECTIVES In March 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention led federal, state, and(More)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been proposed as risk factors for endometriosis. Persistent organochlorine compounds, a group of suspected EDCs, are present to some extent in almost all human adipose tissue and blood via the food chain. A few animal studies have confirmed that exposure to these compounds can increase the incidence of(More)