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Consecutive outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 caused > 150 deaths. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization convened a workgroup of international experts and health officials in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2005. After discussions concerning what is known about aflatoxins, the(More)
In April 2004, one of the largest aflatoxicosis outbreaks occurred in rural Kenya, resulting in 317 cases and 125 deaths. Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND Sixteen children diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1997 and 2002 lived in Churchill County, Nevada, at the time of or before their illness. Considering the county population and statewide cancer rate, fewer than two cases would be expected. OBJECTIVES In March 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention led federal, state, and(More)
Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and(More)
Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in(More)
BACKGROUND Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS We tested associations between(More)
OBJECTIVES During January-June 2004, an aflatoxicosis outbreak in eastern Kenya resulted in 317 cases and 125 deaths. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for contamination of implicated maize and, for the first time, quantitated biomarkers associated with acute aflatoxicosis. DESIGN We administered questionnaires regarding maize(More)
OBJECTIVE In a study to identify exposures associated with 15 cases of childhood leukemia, we found levels of tungsten, arsenic, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in participants to be higher than mean values reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Because case and comparison families had similar levels of these(More)
This work group report addresses the central question: What are the critical windows during development (preconception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health? The reproductive system develops in stages, with sex-specific organogenesis occurring prenatally and further maturational(More)
In January 1995 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declared methyl parathion-contaminated homes in Lorain County, Ohio, as a Superfund cleanup site. During the 2-year cleanup, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with county and city health officials conducted a study of exposure and health effects among residents. We(More)