Carol S. Rubin

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OBJECTIVE This analysis estimates the first nationally representative prevalence of noise-induced hearing threshold shifts (NITS) among US children. Historically, NITS has not been considered a common cause of childhood hearing problems. Among children, NITS can be a progressive problem with continued exposure to excessive noise, which can lead to(More)
Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater(More)
BACKGROUND Sixteen children diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1997 and 2002 lived in Churchill County, Nevada, at the time of or before their illness. Considering the county population and statewide cancer rate, fewer than two cases would be expected. OBJECTIVES In March 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention led federal, state, and(More)
Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine age-specific population-based values for serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in women in the U.S. population. DESIGN Data were collected from a nationally representative cross-sectional health examination survey that included measurements of follicle-stimulating(More)
Diethylene glycol (DEG), an extremely toxic chemical, has been implicated as the etiologic agent in at least 12 medication-associated mass poisonings over the last 70 years. Why DEG mass poisonings occur remains unclear. Most reports do not contain detailed reports of trace-back investigations into the etiology. The authors, therefore, conducted a(More)
Concerns about pesticide exposure through food consumption have increased during the past several years. The main objective of our study was to determine whether we could use data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to detect a relation between self-reported food consumption — particularly consumption of fruits,(More)
A retrospective study of ultrasound images of the liver in patients with hepatitis was undertaken. Two distinct ultrasound patterns were detected. In acute hepatitis, the predominant findings were accentuated brightness and more extensive demonstration of the portal vein radicle walls and overall decreased echogenicity of the liver. Chronic hepatitis(More)
OBJECTIVE In a study to identify exposures associated with 15 cases of childhood leukemia, we found levels of tungsten, arsenic, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in participants to be higher than mean values reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Because case and comparison families had similar levels of these(More)