Carol S. Lutz

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mRNA polyadenylation is a critical cellular process in eukaryotes. It involves 3' end cleavage of nascent mRNAs and addition of the poly(A) tail, which plays important roles in many aspects of the cellular metabolism of mRNA. The process is controlled by various cis-acting elements surrounding the cleavage site, and their binding factors. In this study, we(More)
Polyadenylation is an essential step for the maturation of almost all cellular mRNAs in eukaryotes. In human cells, most poly(A) sites are flanked by the upstream AAUAAA hexamer or a close variant, and downstream U/GU-rich elements. In yeast and plants, additional cis elements have been found to be located upstream of the poly(A) site, including UGUA, UAUA,(More)
HeLa cytoplasmic extracts contain both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities that may play important roles in mRNA decay. Using an in vitro RNA deadenylation/decay assay, mRNA decay intermediates were trapped using phosphothioate-modified RNAs. These data indicate that 3'-5' exonucleolytic decay is the major pathway of RNA degradation following(More)
Alternative RNA processing mechanisms, including alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation, are increasingly recognized as important regulators of gene expression. This article will focus on what has recently been described about alternative polyadenylation in development, differentiation, and disease in higher eukaryotes. We will also describe(More)
Two cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, are present in human cells. While COX-1 is constitutively expressed, COX-2 is inducible and up-regulated in response to many signals. Since increased transcriptional activity accounts for only part of COX-2 up-regulation, we chose to explore other RNA processing mechanisms in the regulation of this gene.(More)
Regulation of gene expression by RNA processing mechanisms is now understood to be an important level of control in mammalian cells. Regulation at the level of RNA transcription, splicing, polyadenylation, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, and translation into polypeptides has been well-studied. Alternative RNA processing events, such as alternative splicing,(More)
3'-Untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes often contain key regulatory elements involved in gene expression control. A high degree of evolutionary conservation in regions of the 3'-UTR suggests important, conserved elements. In particular, we are interested in those elements involved in regulation of 3' end formation. In addition to canonical sequence(More)
A biologically important human gene, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), has been proposed to be regulated at many levels. While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in cells, COX-2 is inducible and is upregulated in response to many signals. Since increased transcriptional activity accounts for only part of the upregulation of COX-2, we chose to explore other RNA(More)
Adenosine receptor ligands have anti-inflammatory effects and modulate immune responses by up-regulating IL-10 production by immunostimulated macrophages. The adenosine receptor family comprises G protein-coupled heptahelical transmembrane receptors classified into four types: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Our understanding of the signaling mechanisms leading to(More)
An integral component of the splicing machinery, the U1 snRNP, is here implicated in the efficient polyadenylation of SV40 late mRNAs. This occurs as a result of an interaction between U1 snRNP-A protein and the upstream efficiency element (USE) of the polyadenylation signal. UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation demonstrate that this interaction can(More)