Carol Palmer

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Hendra virus (HeV) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. Poor understanding of HeV dynamics in Pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. We initiated a longitudinal field study of HeV in little red flying foxes (LRFF; Pteropus scapulatus) and examined(More)
Sources of Escherichia coli in a coastal waterway located in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., were evaluated. The study consisted of an extensive program of field measurements designed to capture spatial and temporal variations in E. coli concentrations as well as experiments conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions. E. coli from environmental samples was(More)
The potential regrowth of fecal indicator bacteria released into coastal environments in recreational water bodies has been of concern, especially in tropical and subtropical areas where the number of these bacteria can be artificially elevated beyond that from fecal impacts alone. The task of determining the factors that influence indicator bacterial(More)
Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine(More)
Malaria is a global health problem, responsible for nearly 3 million deaths each year, and on the increase worldwide. Improvements in malaria diagnostics should facilitate the identification of individuals infected with the malarial parasites and the treatment of such cases with appropriate drugs. Both traditional and contemporary methods for malaria(More)
Approximately 55% of malaria infections in the Guyana Amazon region are attributed to Plasmodium falciparum while the other 45% are attributed to non-falciparum, mostly Plasmodium vivax. However, little is known about the P. vivax strain types circulating in the region. Using PCR for Plasmodium detection and two genetic markers specific to P. vivax to(More)
A rapid and simple method was developed to detect enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage and ocean water. Sewage samples were concentrated by Centriprep-100 and Centricon-100 at 1,000 x g. Samples collected from estuary and near-shore surf zone ocean water in Southern California were concentrated by vortex flow filtration and(More)
We report the findings of a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidum infections in Jamaica. Three hundred twenty eight stool samples from patients less than one to 81 years of age were examined using formalin-ether concentration for G. lamblia, Zeihl-Neelsen staining for Cryptosporidium, and the Prospect rapid enzyme(More)
A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the(More)
More than 1,000 cases of malaria are diagnosed each year in the United States. Reported numbers, however, may be artificially low because many clinicians fail to consider the diagnosis on presentation, U.S. hospital laboratory technologists have very limited experience in detecting and identifying malaria parasites, and reporting of malaria to state health(More)