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To determine the function of VGF, a secreted polypeptide that is synthesized by neurons, is abundant in the hypothalamus, and is regulated in the brain by electrical activity, injury, and the circadian clock, we generated knockout mice lacking Vgf. Homozygous mutants are small, hypermetabolic, hyperactive, and infertile, with markedly reduced leptin levels(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to validate the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) for estimation of energy expenditure during a variety of activities. An additional aim was to improve the accuracy of the estimation of energy expenditure of physical activity based on second-by-second information of type, onset, and duration(More)
Recent data have identified leptin as an afferent signal in a negative-feedback loop regulating the mass of the adipose tissue. High leptin levels are observed in obese humans and rodents, suggesting that, in some cases, obesity is the result of leptin insensitivity. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the response to peripherally and centrally(More)
The effect of 7 wk consumption of a diet containing 32.6% of kilocalories as fat [condensed milk (CM) diet] on body composition and energy intake was evaluated in nine strains of inbred mice (AKR/J, C57L/J, A/J, C3H/HeJ, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, SJL/J, I/STN, and SWR/J). Control animals were fed a high-carbohydrate diet containing 11.6% of energy as fat (Purina(More)
Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We have developed a mouse model of LBW resulting from undernutrition during pregnancy. Restriction of maternal food intake from day 12.5 to 18.5 of pregnancy results in a 23% decrease in birth weight (P < 0.001), with normalization after birth. However, offspring of undernutrition(More)
OBJECTIVES To validate a new device, Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA), for the measurement of duration, frequency, and intensity of various types of human physical activity (PA). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES The ability of IDEEA to identify and quantify 32 types of PA, including the most common daily exercise and(More)
Targeted deletion of the gene encoding the neuronal and neuroendocrine secreted polypeptide VGF (nonacronymic) produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse. Consistent with this phenotype, VGF mRNA levels are regulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in response to fasting. To gain insight into the site(s) and mechanism(s) of action of VGF, we further(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of weight change on the relationship between coffee and tea consumption and diabetes risk. DESIGN Prospective cohort study, using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow Up Study. Survival analyses were conducted using 301 selfreported cases of diabetes and eight documented(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine long-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal Ma Huang and Kola nut supplement (90/192 mg/day ephedrine alkaloids/caffeine). DESIGN Six-month randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial. SUBJECTS A total of 167 subjects (body mass index (BMI) 31.8+/-4.1 kg/m(2)) randomized to placebo (n=84) or herbal treatment(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to discriminate between various soft tissues in vivo. Whole body, specific organ, total adipose tissue (TAT), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and skeletal muscle (SM) weights determined by MRI were compared with weights determined by dissection and chemical analysis in two studies with male(More)