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Short interspersed elements (SINEs) may be found in the genomes of a wide variety of mammals (Deininger and Batzer 1993). The Alu family of SINEs is one of the most successful mobile genetic elements, having arisen to a copy number in excess of 500,000 within the human genome in approximately 65 million years of primate evolution. Alu sequences are thought(More)
Newly isolated members of two recently propagated (young) Alu subfamilies were examined for sequence diversity and insertion polymorphism in primate genomes. The smaller subfamily (termed HS-2) is comprised of approximately 5 to 25 members, while the larger (termed Sb2) includes approximately 125 to 600 members. Individual members of these Alu subfamilies(More)
DNA base sequence comparisons demonstrate that the principal family of 300-nucleotide interspersed human DNA sequences, the repetitive double-strand regions of HeLa cell heterogeneous nuclear RNA, and specific RNA polymerase III in vitro transcripts of cloned human DNA sequences are all representatives of a closely related family of sequences. A segment of(More)
Human Alu and adenovirus VA1 RNAs each stimulate the translational expression of reporter genes in co-transient transfection assays without affecting either the rate of global protein synthesis or the abundance of the reporter mRNA. This selective, post-transcriptional stimulation of expression, which is observed in human and mouse cell lines and for three(More)
During heat shock recovery in Hela cells, the level of Alu RNA transiently increases with kinetics that approximately parallel the transient expression of heat shock protein mRNAs. Coincidentally, there is a transient increase in the accessibility of Alu chromatin to restriction enzyme cleavage suggesting that an opening and re-closing of chromatin(More)
Full length Alu transcripts in HeLa cells are detected by primer extension using reverse transcriptase and are also analyzed as cloned cDNA sequences. The 5' end of these transcripts corresponds to the transcriptional start site for RNA polymerase III indicating that these RNAs are transcribed from their internal polymerase III promoters. The Alu(More)
Alu repeats in K562 cells are unusually hypomethylated and far more actively transcribed than those in other human cell lines and somatic tissues. Also, the level of Alu RNA in K562 cells is relatively insensitive to cell stresses, namely heat shock, adenovirus infection and treatment with cycloheximide, which increase the abundance of Alu RNA in HeLa and(More)
The possible functionality of short interspersed elements (SINEs) is investigated by assaying the effects of physiological stress on their RNA polymerase-III-directed transcriptional expression in vivo. B2 RNA is expressed at moderately high levels in all mouse tissues investigated, namely liver, spleen, kidney and testis. B1 RNA is expressed in testis but(More)