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In a study of the neural components of automatic and controlled social evaluation, White participants viewed Black and White faces during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. When the faces were presented for 30 ms, activation in the amygdala-a brain region associated with emotion-was greater for Black than for White faces. When the faces(More)
Previous work suggests that explicit and implicit evaluations (good-bad) involve somewhat different neural circuits that process different dimensions such as valence, emotional intensity, and complexity. To better understand these differences, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain regions that respond differentially to such(More)
Recent studies of episodic memory using functional neuroimaging techniques indicate that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) is activated while people remember events. Our review suggests that left PFC is also activated during remembering, depending on the reflective demands of the task. As more, or more complex, reflective processes are required (e.g. when(More)
Using fMRI, we investigated the functional organization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) as participants briefly thought of a single just-experienced item (i.e., refreshed an active representation). The results of six studies, and a meta-analysis including previous studies, identified regions in left dorsolateral, anterior, and ventrolateral PFC associated in(More)
Richly detailed memories for particular events depend on processes that bind individual features of experience together. Previous cognitive behavioral research indicates that older adults have more difficulty than young adults in conditions requiring feature binding. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a working memory task to(More)
Two studies explored potential bases for reality monitoring (Johnson & Raye, 1981) of naturally occurring autobiographical events. In Study 1, subjects rated phenomenal characteristics of recent and childhood memories. Compared with imagined events, perceived events were given higher ratings on several characteristics, including perceptual information,(More)
Neuroimaging studies of human working memory (WM) show conflicting results regarding whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to maintaining information in consciousness or is recruited primarily when information must be manipulated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we looked at a minimal maintenance process--thinking back(More)
Current models of executive function hold that the internal representations of stimuli used during reflective thought are maintained in the same posterior cortical regions initially activated during perception, and that activity in such regions is modulated by top-down signals originating in prefrontal cortex. In an event-related functional magnetic(More)
Executive functions include processes by which important information (e.g., words, objects, task goals, contextual information) generated via perception or thought can be foregrounded and thereby influence current and subsequent processing. One simple executive process that has the effect of foregrounding information is refreshing--thinking briefly of a(More)
Age-related deficits in memory are greater as encoding and retrieval tasks require more reflective (self-generated or executive) processing. One problem in developing more specific models of age-related changes in cognition is that the tasks studied tend to be complex and vary in the combinations of component cognitive processes they recruit. Here we report(More)