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BACKGROUND The progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) to blast crisis is supported by self-renewing leukemic stem cells. In normal mouse hematopoietic stem cells, the process of self-renewal involves the beta-catenin-signaling pathway. We investigated whether leukemic stem cells in CML also use the beta-catenin pathway for self-renewal. METHODS(More)
Individual variation in the Ig germline gene repertoire leads to individual differences in the combinatorial diversity of the Ab repertoire, but the study of such variation has been problematic. The application of high-throughput DNA sequencing to the study of rearranged Ig genes now makes this possible. The sequencing of thousands of VDJ rearrangements(More)
ht://st D ow nladed fom The complex repertoire of immune receptors generated by B and T cells enables recognition of diverse threats to the host organism. Here, we show that massively parallel DNA sequencing of rearranged immune receptor loci can provide direct detection and tracking of immune diversity and expanded clonal lymphocyte populations in(More)
Here we report the discovery of oncogenic mutations in the Hedgehog and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in over 80% of ameloblastomas, locally destructive odontogenic tumors of the jaw, by genomic analysis of archival material. Mutations in SMO (encoding Smoothened, SMO) are common in ameloblastomas of the maxilla, whereas BRAF mutations(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella, establishes latency in sensory ganglia, and reactivates as herpes zoster. Human dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) xenografts in immunodeficient mice provide a model for evaluating VZV neuropathogenesis. Our investigation of the role of glycoprotein I (gI), which is dispensable in vitro, examines the functions of a VZV(More)
Accompaniment and representation in workplace in workp plac ace discipline and grievance For any further information on this study, or other aspects of the Acas Research and Evaluation programme, please telephone 020 7210 3673 or DISCLAIMER The views in this report are the authors' own and do not necessarily reflect those of Acas. 5.1 Operation of(More)
Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis is a self-limited disorder that typically involves the cervical lymph nodes of young women. Although a viral etiology has been postulated, a definitive viral agent has not been identified. Recent reports have suggested that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play an etiologic role. We(More)