Carol J. Saunders

Learn More
Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been(More)
The overwhelming majority of Rett syndrome cases are caused by mutations in the gene MECP2. MECP2 has two isoforms, termed MECP2_e1 and MECP2_e2, which differ in their N-terminal amino acid sequences. A growing body of evidence has indicated that MECP2_e1 may be the etiologically relevant isoform in Rett Syndrome based on its expression profile in the brain(More)
While the cost of whole genome sequencing (WGS) is approaching the realm of routine medical tests, it remains too tardy to help guide the management of many acute medical conditions. Rapid WGS is imperative in light of growing evidence of its utility in acute care, such as in diagnosis of genetic diseases in very ill infants, and genotype-guided choice of(More)
Currently, diagnosis of affected individuals with rare genetic disorders can be lengthy and costly, resulting in a diagnostic odyssey and in many patients a definitive molecular diagnosis is never achieved despite extensive clinical investigation. The recent advent and use of genomic medicine has resulted in a paradigm shift in the clinical molecular(More)
A recent report by the World Health Organization calls for implementation of community genetics programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Their focus is prevention of congenital disorders and genetic diseases at the population level, in addition to providing genetics services, including diagnosis and counseling. The proposed strategies include(More)
BACKGROUND Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of girls, caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene. Worldwide recognition of the RTT clinical phenotype in the early 1980's allowed many cases to be diagnosed, and established RTT as one of the most common mental retardation syndromes in females. The years since then led to a(More)
A new disease class of syndromes, described as linkeropathies, which are derived from defects in the glycosaminoglycan-linker region as well as glycosaminoglycan-side chains of proteoglycans is increasingly being recognized as a cause of human disease. Proteoglycans are an essential component of the extracellular matrix. Defects in the enzymatic process of(More)
Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of inherited conditions associated with chromosomal instability and breakage, often leading to immunodeficiency, growth retardation and increased risk of malignancy. We performed exome sequencing on a girl with a suspected chromosome instability syndrome that manifested as growth retardation, microcephaly,(More)
The epileptic encephalopathies are a group of highly heterogeneous genetic disorders. The majority of disease-causing mutations alter genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, or synaptic proteins. We have identified a novel de novo pathogenic K+ channel variant in an idiopathic epileptic encephalopathy family. Here, we report(More)