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Eighty-two participants listened to sentences and then judged whether two sequentially presented visual objects were the same. On critical trials, participants heard a sentence describe the motion of a ball toward or away from the observer (e.g., " The pitcher hurled the softball to you "). Seven hundred and fifty milliseconds after the offset of the(More)
We investigated the relative contribution of perfective and imperfective aspectual cues on situation models. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to choose pictures showing completed events than pictures showing ongoing events when they had read perfective sentences, but chose either picture after reading imperfective sentences. In Experiment 2,(More)
Recently developed accounts of language comprehension propose that sentences are understood by constructing a perceptual simulation of the events being described. These simulations involve the re-activation of patterns of brain activation that were formed during the comprehender's interaction with the world. In two experiments we explored the specificity of(More)
We investigated the question of whether comprehenders mentally simulate a described situation even when this situation is explicitly negated in the sentence. In two experiments, participants read negative sentences such as There was no eagle in the sky, and subsequently responded to pictures of mentioned entities in the context of a recognition task.(More)
In 2 experiments, the authors investigated the ability of high- and low-span comprehenders to construe subtle shades of meaning through perceptual representation. High- and low-span comprehenders responded to pictures that either matched or mismatched a target object's shape as implied by the preceding sentence context. At 750 ms after hearing the sentence(More)
Covariation among words is certainly related to meaning, meaning similarity, and psychological processing. We argue, however, that the causal arrow is from meaning (and meaning similarity) to covariation, not vice versa. Consequently, covariation is not meaning, it is unlikely to provide an accurate metric for similarity of meanings, and embodied learning(More)
The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E. Albrecht, and(More)
This article addresses issues in embodied sentence processing from a "cognitive neural systems" approach that combines analysis of the behavior in question, analysis of the known neurophysiological bases of this behavior, and the synthesis of a neuro-computational model of embodied sentence processing that can be applied to and tested in the context of(More)
Several studies have provided empirical support for S. T. Tiffany's (1990) hypothesis that drug urges interfere with cognitive performance. The authors examined the persistence of this effect. Results from an experiment involving 48 smokers and 46 nonsmokers, using a paradigm developed by R. A. Zwaan and T. P. Truitt (1998), suggest that the effect of(More)
The effect of smoking urges on cognitive performance is relatively short-lived (R. A. Zwaan, R. A. Stanfield, & C. M. Madden, 2000). The authors examined whether this results from the short-lived nature of the elicited urge itself or from practice effects on the cognitive task. Smokers listened to 1 of 2 imagery scripts (urge vs. neutral) and subsequently(More)