Carol J. Charniga

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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of neurons and formation of amyloid plaques, often surrounded by reactive astrocytes. Astrocytes are important regulators of the normal neuronal environment, and changed astrocyte function may lead to increased neuronal vulnerability. The slow onset of the(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), loss of cells and damage to ascending and descending tracts can result in paralysis. Current treatments for SCI are based on patient stabilization, and much-needed regenerative therapies are still under development. To activate and instruct stem and progenitor cells or injured tissue to aid SCI repair, it is important to(More)
Neural progenitor cells can be derived from a variety of developmental stages when they are preferentially proliferating, undergoing neurogenesis or undergoing gliogenesis. We used FACS sorting and the LeX surface marker to enrich neural progenitor cells from different embryonic stages and adult and compared their gene expression profiles using Affymetrix(More)
Astrocytic swelling occurs readily in ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI) as part of the cytotoxic or cellular edema response. Ischemia is known to produce large extracellular increases in both [K+] and excitatory amino acids (EAA) in vivo, and astrocytic swelling in vitro leads to marked release of EAA. In this study we compared the effect of(More)
Volume-dependent anion channels permeable for Cl- and amino acids are thought to play an important role in the homeostasis of cell volume. Astrocytes are the main cell type in the mammalian brain showing volume perturbations under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in hyposmotic(More)
OBJECT The authors have previously shown that tamoxifen is effective in protecting brain tissue from ischemic injury in a rat model of reversible focal ischemia. In this study the authors tested whether similar protective effects are found in a rat model of permanent focal ischemia (permanent middle cerebral artery [MCA] occlusion). METHODS Tamoxifen (20(More)
Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes isolated from the cerebral cortices of 3-10-day-old rats frequently showed increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to L-glutamate and glutamate analogues. However, few of the acutely isolated cells responded to ATP, and no such cells responded to serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)].(More)
Ca2+ imaging and patch-clamp techniques were used to study the effects of serotonin (5-HT) on ionic conductances in rat cortical astrocytes. 1 and 10 microM serotonin caused a transient increase in intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) levels in fura-2AM-loaded cultured astrocytes and in astrocytes acutely isolated and then cultured in horse serum-containing medium(More)
Cell transplantation is a promising way to treat spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Neural stem cells taken from the embryonic spinal cord are an appealing source of cells for transplantation because these cells are committed to making spinal cord progeny. However these stem cells are rare and require expansion in tissue culture to generate(More)
Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs) are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in(More)