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In April 2004, one of the largest aflatoxicosis outbreaks occurred in rural Kenya, resulting in 317 cases and 125 deaths. Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the(More)
Consecutive outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 caused > 150 deaths. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization convened a workgroup of international experts and health officials in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2005. After discussions concerning what is known about aflatoxins, the(More)
Dhaka, Bangladesh, has one of the highest air lead levels in the world. In February 2000, we evaluated children at five primary schools in Dhaka to determine blood lead (BPb) levels, sources of environmental exposure, and potential risk factors for lead poisoning. Selected schools represented a range of geographic and socioeconomic strata. A total of 779(More)
Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and(More)
Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in(More)
OBJECTIVES During January-June 2004, an aflatoxicosis outbreak in eastern Kenya resulted in 317 cases and 125 deaths. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for contamination of implicated maize and, for the first time, quantitated biomarkers associated with acute aflatoxicosis. DESIGN We administered questionnaires regarding maize(More)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continues to be aware of the need for response to public concern as well as to state and local agency concern about cancer clusters. In 1990 the CDC published the "Guidelines for Investigating Clusters of Health Events," in which a four-stage process was presented. This document has provided a framework(More)
In the fall of 1994, Lorain County, Ohio, became the site of the first investigation of several large-scale incidences in which the organophosphate pesticide methyl parathion was illegally applied to private residences. The extent of potential human exposure to this pesticide led the Ohio Department of Health to formally request technical assistance from(More)
OBJECTIVES In this study we evaluated the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females residing in the United States and assessed differences in these concentrations in all pregnant females during gestation. METHODS We reviewed demographic and laboratory data for pregnant females participating in the(More)