Carol F Elias

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the hypothalamus. Examination of these lesions has shown them to be very large, but they all have in common extensive bilateral damage to the region occupied by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the arcuate nucleus, the fornix, Joel K. Elmquist,*† Carol F. Elias,*† and Clifford B. Saper*‡ *Department of Neurology and Program in(More)
Recent studies have identified several neuropeptide systems in the hypothalamus that are critical in the regulation of body weight. The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has long been considered essential in regulating food intake and body weight. Two neuropeptides, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and the orexins (ORX), are localized in the LHA and(More)
The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin decreases body weight in part by activating the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in increased thermogenesis and energy expenditure. We investigated hypothalamic pathways underlying leptin's effects on stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. We found that leptin activates neurons in the retrochiasmatic area (RCA)(More)
Recent studies have reinforced the view that the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulates food intake and body weight. We identified leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc) that innervate the LHA using retrograde tracing with leptin administration. We found that retrogradely labeled cells in the Arc contained neuropeptide(More)
Humans and mice with loss-of-function mutations of the genes encoding kisspeptins (Kiss1) or kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) are infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Within the hypothalamus, Kiss1 mRNA is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (Arc). In order to better study the different populations of(More)
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently described neuropeptide widely expressed in the rat brain. CART mRNA and peptides are found in hypothalamic sites such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVH), the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH), the arcuate(More)
Leptin has profound effects on feeding, metabolism, and neuroendocrine status. Evidence indicates that the hypothalamus coordinates these responses, though the specific brain pathways engaged by leptin remain obscure. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) regulates pituitary gland function and feeding, and innervates autonomic preganglionic(More)
The central actions of leptin are essential for homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass, glucose metabolism, and many autonomic and neuroendocrine systems. In the brain, leptin acts on numerous different cell types via the long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) to elicit its effects. The precise identification of leptin's cellular targets is fundamental to(More)
Acute leptin administration results in a depolarization and concomitant increase in the firing rate of a subpopulation of arcuate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells. This rapid activation of POMC cells has been implicated as a cellular correlate of leptin effects on energy balance. In contrast to leptin, insulin inhibits the activity of some POMC neurons.(More)
Leptin has profound effects on food intake, body weight, and neuroendocrine status. The lack of leptin results in hormonal and metabolic alterations and a dramatic increase in body weight. Leptin acts in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus; however, the central nervous system sites that respond to leptin have not been examined comprehensively. In this(More)