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BACKGROUND Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatment completion. METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized noninferiority trial comparing 3 months(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem and a source of preventable deaths each year, with 8.8 million new cases of TB and 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2005. Approximately, 10% of infected individuals develop pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB, suggesting that host defense factors influence development of active disease. Toll-like receptor' (TLR)(More)
An alternative regimen for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is 2 months of rifampin and pyrazinamide, but some patients have died of hepatitis associated with this therapy. One hundred fourteen patients received rifampin/pyrazinamide in Wake County, North Carolina, between December 1999 and May 2002; 60.5% of these patients were homeless, and(More)
RATIONALE Isoniazid given daily for 9 months is the standard treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), but its effectiveness is limited by poor completion rates. Shorter course regimens and regimens using directly observed therapy result in improved adherence but have higher upfront costs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness(More)
SETTING Twenty tuberculosis (TB) clinics in the United States and Canada. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 6-month intermittent regimen of rifampin (RMP), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and either isoniazid(More)
Collagen-vascular diseases are associated with immune dysregulation and inflammation, leading to tissue destruction or compromise. Immunosuppression is more commonly associated with the drugs used to treat these disorders than with the diseases themselves. The newest agents being used to treat collagen-vascular diseases are the tumor necrosis factor(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW There are three tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors on the US and European markets today, and uncommon but devastating infectious complications accompany their use. This review describes the most important pathogen-specific infections and their relative frequency. Recent literature is summarized that has helped elucidate the(More)
Family physicians must proactively address the sexual health of their patients. Effective sexual health care should address wellness considerations in addition to infections, contraception, and sexual dysfunction. However, physicians consistently underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns in their patients. By allocating time to discuss sexual health(More)
Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receive prolonged treatment with DNA-reactive antiretroviral drugs. A prospective study was conducted of 26 HIV-infected men who provided samples before treatment and at multiple times after beginning treatment, to investigate effects of antiretrovirals on lymphocyte and sperm chromosomes and semen(More)
Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis is hindered by the high toxicity and poor efficacy of second-line drugs. New compounds must be used together with existing drugs, yet clinical trials to optimize combinations of drugs for drug-resistant tuberculosis are lacking. We conducted an extensive review of existing in vitro, animal, and clinical studies(More)