Carol D. Hamilton

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BACKGROUND Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatment completion. METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized noninferiority trial comparing 3 months(More)
RATIONALE Isoniazid given daily for 9 months is the standard treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), but its effectiveness is limited by poor completion rates. Shorter course regimens and regimens using directly observed therapy result in improved adherence but have higher upfront costs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem and a source of preventable deaths each year, with 8.8 million new cases of TB and 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2005. Approximately, 10% of infected individuals develop pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB, suggesting that host defense factors influence development of active disease. Toll-like receptor’ (TLR)(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) has substantial mortality worldwide with 5–10% of those exposed progressing to active TB disease. Studies in mice and humans indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecule plays an important role in immune response to TB. A mixed case–control association study of individuals with TB, relatives, or close contact controls(More)
An alternative regimen for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is 2 months of rifampin and pyrazinamide, but some patients have died of hepatitis associated with this therapy. One hundred fourteen patients received rifampin/pyrazinamide in Wake County, North Carolina, between December 1999 and May 2002; 60.5% of these patients were homeless, and(More)
SETTING Host defense factors may influence the development of active tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE To test variants in solute carrier family 11A, member 1 (SLC11A1), for an association with TB. METHODS A mixed case-control study of TB cases, relatives or close contact controls, consisting of 474 African-Americans (243 families) and 381 Caucasians (192(More)
BACKGROUND The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) reported in the United States has been gradually increasing. HIV infection and foreign birth are increasingly associated with tuberculosis and understanding their effect on the clinical presentation of tuberculosis is important. METHODS Case-control study of 6,124 persons with tuberculosis(More)
Family physicians must proactively address the sexual health of their patients. Effective sexual health care should address wellness considerations in addition to infections, contraception, and sexual dysfunction. However, physicians consistently underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns in their patients. By allocating time to discuss sexual health(More)
Organisms within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may have differential virulence. We compared 33 subjects with MAC pulmonary disease to 75 subjects with a single positive culture without disease. M. avium isolates were significantly more likely to be associated with MAC pulmonary disease (odds ratio = 5.14, 95% confidence interval = 1.25 to 22.73)(More)
Despite attempts to standardize tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, there remains wide variation in the selection and implementation of control strategies within and among nations. Some of this variation is appropriate; based on wide variations in the available resources, the prevalence of TB infection, the incidence of TB disease, the relative(More)