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Although trophic cascades (indirect effects of predators on plants via herbivores) occur in a wide variety of food webs, the magnitudes of their effects are often quite variable. We compared the responses of herbivore and plant communities to predator manipulations in 102 field experiments in six different ecosystems: lentic (lake and pond), marine, and(More)
With the advent of affordable yet powerful handheld computers, many ecologists now capture data electronically in the field, while avoiding transcription errors found in more traditional field notebook or slate-based approaches of recording data. Ecologists either use simple forms from generic handheld software that doesn't allow for needed optimizations,(More)
At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics(More)
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