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Although trophic cascades (indirect effects of predators on plants via herbivores) occur in a wide variety of food webs, the magnitudes of their effects are often quite variable. We compared the responses of herbivore and plant communities to predator manipulations in 102 field experiments in six different ecosystems: lentic (lake and pond), marine, and(More)
On wave-swept rocky shores, limpets are subjected to water velocities in excess of 20 m s(-1), which may impose large hydrodynamic forces. Despite the extreme severity of this flow environment, predictions from conical models suggest that limpets' shells are typically far from the optimal shape that would minimize the risk of dislodgment, a deviation that(More)
The interaction of climate and the timing of low tides along the West Coast of the United States creates a complex mosaic of thermal environments, in which northern sites can be more thermally stressful than southern sites. Thus, climate change may not lead to a poleward shift in the distribution of intertidal organisms, as has been proposed, but instead(More)
Aim Our aim in this paper is to present the first broad-scale quantification of species abundance for rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Here we examine the community-level marine biogeographical patterns in the context of formerly described biogeographical regions, and we evaluate the combined effects of geographical(More)
Organisms eating each other are only one of many types of well documented and important interactions among species. Other such types include habitat modification, predator interference and facilitation. However, ecological network research has been typically limited to either pure food webs or to networks of only a few (<3) interaction types. The great(More)
Understanding the mechanisms that create spatial heterogeneity in species distributions is fundamental to ecology. For nearshore marine systems, most species have a pelagic larval stage where dispersal is strongly influenced by patterns of ocean circulation. Concomitantly, nearshore habitats and the local environment are also influenced by ocean(More)
Striking differences in the dispersal of coexisting species have fascinated marine ecologists for decades. Despite widespread attention to the impact of dispersal on individual species dynamics, its role in species interactions has received comparatively little attention. Here, we approach the issue by combining analyses of simple heuristic predator-prey(More)
The threat that ocean acidification (OA) poses to marine ecosystems is now recognized and U.S. funding agencies have designated specific funding for the study of OA. We present a research framework for studying OA that describes it as a biogeochemical event that impacts individual species and ecosystems in potentially unexpected ways. We draw upon specific(More)
Available online xxxx a b s t r a c t The Benguela, California, and Humboldt represent three of the major eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems in the world. Upwelling ecosystems are highly productive, and this productivity forms the base of the food chain, potentially leading to ecosystems similar in trophic structure and diversity among upwelling regions.(More)
With the advent of affordable yet powerful handheld computers, many ecologists now capture data electronically in the field, while avoiding transcription errors found in more traditional field notebook or slate-based approaches of recording data. Ecologists either use simple forms from generic handheld software that doesn't allow for needed optimizations,(More)