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The social behaviour of 8 captive muntjacs was studied from May to October 1970 and 1971. In 1970 close range observation and photography resulted in a descriptive account of the animal's social behaviour patterns. In 1971, 450 h of observation of undisturbed muntjacs living in a 2200 m2 enclosure were devoted to a quantitative study of social interactions.(More)
Agrobacterium transformation systems forBrassica, Solanum andRubus, using carbenicillin, cefotaxime and ticaracillin respectively to eliminate contamination, were examined for the presence of residualAgrobacterium. The results indicated that none of the antibiotics in question, succeeded in eliminatingAgrobacterium and the contamination levels increased in(More)
There are two kinds of antler combats in male deer. Fighting is rare, violent, occurs between matched males, and can cause injury and death. Sparring is common, usually gentle, often occurs between unmatched males, and involves no risk of injury. We recorded 1308 sparring matches and only 6 fights between wild male woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus(More)
In spite of grossly malformed jaw joints, presumably from birth, the animal survived in the wild for at least 3 years. Instead of a deep glenoid fossa folded over a cylindrical condyle to form a hinge, both joints had freely open articulating surfaces and a mandibular condyle without neck. The neckless condyle produced a shorter moment arm of resistance in(More)
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