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Latent inhibition (LI) is a behavioral phenomenon whereby repeated exposure to a non-reinforced stimulus retards subsequent conditioning to that stimulus. Deficits in LI may reflect an inability to ignore irrelevant stimuli and are studied as a model of the cognitive/attentional abnormalities found in schizophrenia. We recently determined that pretreatment(More)
Dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens has been implicated as a neurochemical substrate of associative learning processes. It has been suggested that the acquisition of classically conditioned fear to a specific environment, or context, differs fundamentally from the development of conditioned fear to a discrete stimulus, such as a light or a(More)
Latent inhibition, the process whereby pre-exposure to a conditioned stimulus without consequence impairs subsequent learning of an association between the conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus, is reportedly disrupted in both amphetamine-treated rats and in acute schizophrenics. This has led to the suggestion that disruptions in latent(More)
The enhanced locomotor and stereotypic responses of the rat to repeated amphetamine (AMPH) administration are considered to be an animal model of positive schizophrenic symptoms. In contrast, behaviors observed during withdrawal from repeated AMPH are believed to model depression or anxiety. In the present study, the authors tested whether AMPH withdrawal(More)
Many behavioral functions-including sensorimotor, attentional, memory, and emotional processes-have been associated with hippocampal processes and with dopamine transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This suggests a functional interaction between hippocampus and prefrontal dopamine. The anatomical substrate for such an interaction is the(More)
Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of amphetamine withdrawal in rats on spatial learning in the water maze. A schedule of repeated d-amphetamine administration lasting for 6 days, with three injections per day (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.), was employed. Experiment 1 demonstrated that amphetamine withdrawal did not impair the acquisition of the(More)
It has been suggested that neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAC) dopaminergic (DA) projection contribute to the negative affect associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. The present study assessed the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) withdrawal on behavioral and NAC DA responses to conditioned fear stress. Animals injected with escalating-dose(More)
The conditioned freezing response in rats has been much used both by psychologists and neuroscientists to investigate the behavioural effects of brain lesions and of changes in motivational state. The primary advantage of the freezing response is that it can be used without motivational manipulations such as food or water deprivation. Previously, freezing(More)
The issue of whether profile and stereological counting methods are interchangeably accurate when assessing immediate early gene expression still needs to be resolved. To compare these two counting techniques, we quantified the expression of c-fos in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and in the lateral septum as a control structure, of rats treated with(More)
Different patterns of psychostimulant intake can elicit widely varying behavioral and neurochemical consequences. Accordingly, rats were studied during withdrawal from either of two schedules of amphetamine administration, one consisting of 6 days of low-dose (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) daily intermittent (INT) amphetamine (AMPH) injections, and the other of 6 days(More)