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Most oropharyngeal pathogens express sialic acid units on their surfaces, mimicking the sialyl-rich mucin layer coating epithelial cells and the glycoconjugates present on virtually all host cell surfaces and serum proteins. Unlike the host's cells, which synthesize sialic acids endogenously, several microbial pathogens use truncated sialylation pathways.(More)
Microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated CUS-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7. An homologous chromosomal element (CUS-2) in Yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is(More)
The toxicity of the plant Rhamnus cathartica was assessed in mice after the plant was identified as a potential cause of an idiopathic neurologic disease in horses. Another member of the Rhamnaceae family, Karwinskia humboldtiana, is neurotoxic to mammals and birds and can induce hepatic degeneration and necrosis. To investigate the toxicity of R.(More)
A 6-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was examined because of generalized weakness and abdominal distention. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a large quantity of peritoneal fluid. In addition, the liver appeared larger than normal and contained multiple, small, nodular masses and cyst-like structures. Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare pathologic changes of the horizontal ear canal associated with chronic severe otitis externa between Cocker Spaniels and dogs of other breeds. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 80 dogs with severe otitis externa that required total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy. PROCEDURE Medical records were reviewed for(More)
A more rapid, accurate method to detect toxigenic Pasteurella multocida is needed for improved clinical diagnosis, farm biosecurity, and epidemiological studies. Toxigenic and nontoxigenic P. multocida isolates cannot be differentiated by morphology or standard biochemical reactions. The feasibility of using PCR for accurate, rapid detection of toxigenic P.(More)
Many bacterial commensals and pathogens use the sialic acids as carbon and nitrogen sources. In Escherichia coli, the breakdown of these sugars is catalysed by gene products of the nan (Nacylneuraminate) operon; other microorganisms may use a similar catabolic strategy. Despite the known ligand and antirecognition functions of the sialic acids, the(More)
The tongue plays many vital roles in the oral cavity of the dog and cat. Consequently, lingual lesions can have devastating effects on an animal's overall health. This article provides a review of tongue anatomy as well as a review of the etiology, gross appearance, and diagnostic procedures indicated for a wide variety of lingual lesions. Lingual(More)
The important role of genetic factors in the mediation of sensitivity to pain and pain inhibition is being increasingly appreciated. In an attempt to systematically study the genotypic influences on inflammatory nociception, we conducted a survey of the nociceptive responsivity of three common outbred mouse strains and 11 inbred mouse strains on the(More)
In the third season (2002) of the West Nile virus epidemic in the United States, two canids (wolf and dog) were diagnosed with West Nile virus encephalitis and myocardi-tis with similarities to known affected species (humans, horses, and birds). The West Nile virus infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. S ince its(More)