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Most oropharyngeal pathogens express sialic acid units on their surfaces, mimicking the sialyl-rich mucin layer coating epithelial cells and the glycoconjugates present on virtually all host cell surfaces and serum proteins. Unlike the host's cells, which synthesize sialic acids endogenously, several microbial pathogens use truncated sialylation pathways.(More)
PURPOSE Existing animal models of visceral pain in the mouse are of limited practical usefulness since they are labor intensive or not visceral specific. Recently a rat model of cyclophosphamide (CP) cystitis was developed that requires only intraperitoneal injection and features inflammation confined to the bladder. We adapted this model for use in(More)
Most microorganisms do not produce sialic acid (sialate), and those that do appear to use a biosynthetic mechanism distinct from mammals. Genetic hybrids of nonpathogenic, sialate-negative laboratory Escherichia coli K-12 strains designed for the de novo synthesis of the polysialic acid capsule from E. coli K1 proved useful in elucidating the genetics and(More)
Microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated CUS-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7. An homologous chromosomal element (CUS-2) in Yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is(More)
Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida is a commensal and opportunistic pathogen of food animals, wildlife, and pets and a zoonotic cause of human infection arising from contacts with these animals. Here, an investigation of multiple serotype A strains demonstrated the occurrence of membrane sialyltransferase. Although P. multocida lacks the genes for the(More)
The toxicity of the plant Rhamnus cathartica was assessed in mice after the plant was identified as a potential cause of an idiopathic neurologic disease in horses. Another member of the Rhamnaceae family, Karwinskia humboldtiana, is neurotoxic to mammals and birds and can induce hepatic degeneration and necrosis. To investigate the toxicity of R.(More)
A more rapid, accurate method to detect toxigenic Pasteurella multocida is needed for improved clinical diagnosis, farm biosecurity, and epidemiological studies. Toxigenic and nontoxigenic P. multocida isolates cannot be differentiated by morphology or standard biochemical reactions. The feasibility of using PCR for accurate, rapid detection of toxigenic P.(More)
A 6-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was examined because of generalized weakness and abdominal distention. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a large quantity of peritoneal fluid. In addition, the liver appeared larger than normal and contained multiple, small, nodular masses and cyst-like structures. Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, and(More)
Many bacterial commensals and pathogens use the sialic acids as carbon and nitrogen sources. In Escherichia coli, the breakdown of these sugars is catalysed by gene products of the nan (Nacylneuraminate) operon; other microorganisms may use a similar catabolic strategy. Despite the known ligand and antirecognition functions of the sialic acids, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare pathologic changes of the horizontal ear canal associated with chronic severe otitis externa between Cocker Spaniels and dogs of other breeds. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 80 dogs with severe otitis externa that required total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy. PROCEDURE Medical records were reviewed for(More)