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Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare chronic neurological disorder, characterised by unilateral inflammation of the cerebral cortex, drug-resistant epilepsy, and progressive neurological and cognitive deterioration. Neuropathological and immunological studies support the notion that Rasmussen's encephalitis is probably driven by a T-cell response to one or(More)
A glioma cell line, CNS-1, was developed in the inbred Lewis rat to obtain a histocompatible astrocytoma cell line with infiltrative and growth patterns that more closely simulate those observed in human gliomas. Rats were given weekly intravenous injections for a six month period with N-nitroso-N-methylurea to produce neoplasm in the central nervous(More)
A panel of human glioma cell explants was screened for integrin expression by flow cytometry using α(ν)β-specific antibodies. A lower percentage of the glioma cells were positive for the α(ν)β3 (mean % positive = 20.8%) integrin, whereas higher percentages were positive for the ανβ5 (mean % positive = 72.7%), VLA5α (mean % positive = 87%) and VLAβ1 (mean %(More)
The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune(More)
Nucleic acid enzymes have been used with great success for studying natural processes in the central nervous system (CNS). We first provide information on the structural and enzymatic differences of various ribozymes and DNAzymes. We then discuss how they have been used to explore new therapeutic approaches for treating diseases of the CNS. They have been(More)
For a single-dose toxicity assessment, five patients with recurrent malignant glioma (ages 29-46 years) were treated with intracavitary alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). The trial tested the hypothesis that alloreactive CTL, sensitized to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins of the patient, offer selective,(More)
Between August 1986 and October 1987, the Denver Brain Tumor Research Group conducted a clinical trial using autologous human recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-activated lymphocytes to treat 20 patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. The trial involved surgical resection and/or decompression followed by intracavitary implantation of lymphokine-activated(More)
High grade malignant gliomas are genetically unstable, heterogeneous and highly infiltrative; all characteristics that lend glioma cells superior advantages in resisting conventional therapies. Unfortunately, the median survival time for patients with glioblastoma multiforme remains discouraging at 12-15 months from diagnosis. Neuroimmunologists/oncologists(More)
Malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma, are characterized by extensive angiogenesis and permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The infiltration of glioma cells away from the primary tumor mass is a pathological characteristic of glial tumors. The infiltrating tumor cells represent a significant factor in tumor recurrence following surgical(More)
Irradiation with parallel arrays of thin, planar slices of X-ray beams (microplanar beams, or microbeams) spares normal tissue, including the central nervous system (CNS), and preferentially damages tumors. The effects are mediated, at least in part, by the tissue's microvasculature that seems to effectively repair itself in normal tissue but fails to do so(More)