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Zinc is required for the activity of > 300 enzymes, covering all six classes of enzymes. Zinc binding sites in proteins are often distorted tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal geometry, made up of the sulfur of cysteine, the nitrogen of histidine or the oxygen of aspartate and glutamate, or a combination. Zinc in proteins can either participate directly in(More)
Eukaryotic transfer RNA precursors (pre-tRNAs) contain a 5' leader preceding the aminoacyl acceptor stem and a 3' trailer extending beyond this stem. An early step in pre-tRNA maturation is removal of the 5' leader by the endoribonuclease, RNase P. Extensive pairing between leader and trailer sequences has previously been demonstrated to block RNase P(More)
A kinetic scheme is presented for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase that predicts steady-state kinetic parameters and full time course kinetics under a variety of substrate concentrations and pHs. This scheme was derived from measuring association and dissociation rate constants and pre-steady-state transients by using stopped-flow fluorescence and(More)
Perdeuteration of all non-exchangeable proton sites can significantly increase the size of proteins and protein complexes for which NMR resonance assignments and structural studies are possible. Backbone 1H, 15N, 13CO, 13C alpha and 13C beta chemical shifts and aliphatic side-chain 13C and 1H(N)/15N chemical shifts for human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II),(More)
Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) contains a conserved His3 zinc polyhedron which is essential for catalysis. Removal of any one of the His ligands by replacement with Ala decreases (approximately 10(5)-fold), but does not abolish, zinc binding and increases the rate constant for zinc dissociation. CAII variants with a His ligand substituted with Cys, Asp, or(More)
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyzes the formation of the mature 5' end of tRNA. To investigate the role of the protein component in enhancing the affinity of Bacillus subtilis RNase P for substrate (Kurz, J. C., Niranjanakumari, S., Fierke, C. A. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 2393), the kinetics and thermodynamics of binding and(More)
In E. coli, ZitB and ZntA are important metal exporters that enhance cell viability under high environmental zinc. To understand their functions in maintaining zinc homeostasis, we applied a novel genetically-encoded fluorescent zinc sensor to monitor the intracellular free zinc changes in wild type, ∆zitB and ∆zntA E. coli cells upon sudden exposure to(More)
UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a unique amphiphilic molecule found in the outer membranes of virtually all Gram-negative bacteria. Since lipid A biosynthesis is required for bacterial growth, inhibitors of LpxC have potential utility as antibiotics. The enzymes(More)
Zinc plays both physiological and pathological roles in biology, making it of increasing interest. To date, intracellular free zinc has been measured in cell types supplemented with or enriched in zinc, such as hippocampal neurons. Here we quantitatively image intracellular exchangeable zinc in an ordinary resting cell culture line (PC-12), using an(More)
The crystal structure of a human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) variant, cis-proline-202-->alanine (P202A), has been determined at 1.7-A resolution, indicating that the wild-type geometry, including the cis-peptidyl linkage, is retained upon substitution of proline by alanine. The CO2 hydrase activity and affinity for sulfonamide inhibitors of P202A CAII are(More)