Carmilla M. M. Licht

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CONTEXT It has been hypothesized that depression is associated with lower heart rate variability and decreased cardiac vagal control. This may play an important role in the risk of cardiovascular disease among depressed individuals. OBJECTIVE To determine whether heart rate variability was lower in depressed individuals than in healthy controls in a large(More)
BACKGROUND It was previously shown that antidepressants are associated with diminished vagal control over the heart. Longitudinal studies are needed to test the causality of this association further. METHODS Longitudinal data were obtained in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline and at 2-year follow-up, heart rate and cardiac vagal(More)
Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients with different types of anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder) have higher heart rate and lower heart rate variability compared with healthy controls in a sample that was sufficiently powered to examine the confounding effects of lifestyle and antidepressants. METHODS The(More)
CONTEXT Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet well understood. OBJECTIVE We examined the relationship between two main str systems, the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the metabolic syndrome and(More)
BACKGROUND Altered cardiac autonomic control has often been reported in depressed persons and might play an important role in the increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A negative association between cardiac autonomic control and depression might become specifically clinically relevant in persons 60 years or older as CVD risk increases with age.(More)
INTRODUCTION Although HPA-axis activity has been studied extensively in relation to depression, there is no consensus whether HPA-axis parameters predicts major depressive disorder (MDD) recurrence. We investigated whether HPA-axis parameters (cortisol awakening response (CAR), the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and evening cortisol) predict time to(More)
Higher resting heart rate is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Though heritable factors play a substantial role in population variation, little is known about specific genetic determinants. This knowledge can impact clinical care by identifying novel factors that influence pathologic heart rate states, modulate heart rate(More)
BACKGROUND Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological stress systems or lifestyle factors underlie these(More)
BACKGROUND Heavy alcohol use as well as alcohol dependence (AD) have been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the relative contribution of alcohol use and AD is unclear. METHODS Baseline data were derived from 2947 persons of the Netherlands Study of Depression and(More)