Carmen de Mendoza

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A total of 1,220 subjects from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain (median age = 41 years; 453 male and 767 female) was examined for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV), and D (HDV) viruses. Extracted RNA and DNA from the positive samples were used to quantify viral load. The prevalence of HIV antibodies, HCV RNA,(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can impair the response to combination therapy. Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis. METHODS We determined the baseline rate of drug(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tropism can be assessed using phenotypic assays, but this is quite laborious, expensive, and time-consuming and can be made only in sophisticated laboratories. More accessible albeit reliable tools for testing of HIV-1 tropism are needed in view of the prompt introduction of CCR5 antagonists in clinical practice.(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 co-receptor usage may play a critical role in AIDS pathogenesis. Information on viral tropism in HIV-1 seroconverters is scarce, as is the relationship with transmission of drug-resistant viruses. METHODS All consecutive HIV-1 seroconverters seen between January 1997 and December 2005 in 17 Spanish hospitals were retrospectively analysed.(More)
The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 is constantly changing, mainly as a result of human migratory flows and the high adaptive ability of the virus. In recent years, Spain has become one of Europe's main destinations for immigrants and one of the western European countries with the highest rates of HIV-positive patients. Using a phylogeographic approach, we(More)
BACKGROUND Dried blood spots (DBSs) are an attractive alternative to plasma for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in resource-limited settings. We recently showed that HIV-1 can be efficiently genotyped from DBSs stored at -20 degrees C for prolonged periods (0.5-4 years). Here, we evaluated the efficiency of genotyping from DBSs stored at 4 degrees C for 1(More)
Although most HTLV infections in Spain have been found in native intravenous drug users carrying HTLV-2, the large immigration flows from Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa in recent years may have changed the prevalence and distribution of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections, and hypothetically open the opportunity for introducing HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 in Spain. To(More)
The prevalence of drug resistance mutations was 12.1% among 198 persons who experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion identified in Spain during 1997-2004. There was a significant increase of K103N and of non-B subtypes over time. Transmission of HIV infection around the time of seroconversion was shown in 8 couples and in 2 clusters of(More)
OBJECTIVES Evaluation of the reliability of several V3-based genotypic predictors to infer viral tropism in patients infected with B and non-B strains of HIV-1. METHODS Several genotypic tropism predictors were evaluated in plasma (RNA) samples from 198 HIV-1-infected patients, taking as gold standard the results of the phenotypic recombinant virus assay(More)
OBJECTIVE Rilpivirine (RPV) is the latest approved nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). It displays in-vitro activity extending over other NNRTI-resistant HIV strains. There is scarce information about the rate of RPV resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in patients failing other NNRTIs. METHODS RPV RAMs were examined in plasma samples(More)