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BACKGROUND Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can impair the response to combination therapy. Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis. METHODS We determined the baseline rate of drug(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine factors influencing the rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among seroconverters, with particular emphasis on 3 widely used genotypic drug resistance algorithms. METHODS The study used data from CASCADE (Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe), a collaboration of seroconverter cohorts in Europe and(More)
Abstract The activity of raltegravir and etravirine was assessed in vitro in HIV-1 group O isolates. Despite the presence of some natural polymorphisms associated with resistance to raltegravir (V72I, L74I, S153A, V201I, and T206S) and etravirine (G190A), both drugs showed significant antiviral activity. Subsequently, the clinical benefit was shown in an(More)
The Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 v1.1 assay (Biomerieux) is a real-time detection method combined with NASBA technology designed to measure plasma HIV-RNA. Its performance was assessed in 1008 clinical specimens collected from individuals infected with clade B (774) and non-B (234) HIV-1 variants at four European laboratories. The results were compared with those(More)
The prevalence of etravirine resistance mutations was examined in genotypes derived from 1343 HIV-infected patients failing nevirapine or efavirenz in the resistance database of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (ResRIS). Overall, etravirine-resistant genotypes were recognized in 18.7% of patients, with no significant differences between failures under(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. RESULTS In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Monitoring of antiretroviral treatment (ART) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads, as recommended in industrialized countries, is rarely available in resource-limited settings because of the high costs and stringent requirements for storage and transport of plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS) can be an alternative to plasma, but the(More)
BACKGROUND Atazanavir seems to be a protease inhibitor (PI) with a more favourable metabolic profile. Information regarding the potential benefit of replacing lopinavir/ritonavir by atazanavir in HIV-infected patients with prolonged viral suppression is scarce. If proved, this strategy could be particularly attractive for the subset of patients with greater(More)