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1. The effect of guanosine on L-[2,3-3H]glutamate uptake was investigated in brain cortical slices under normal or oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. 2. In slices exposed to physiological conditions, guanosine (1–100 μM) stimulated glutamate uptake (up to 100%) in a concentration-dependent manner when a high (100 μM) but not a low (1 μM)(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness of a simplified power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) assessment of joint inflammation compared with a comprehensive 44-joint PDUS assessment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who started therapy with a biologic agent. METHODS A total of 160 patients with active RA who started a(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autossomal recessive disease caused by phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase deficiency, which is a liver-specific enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of l-phenylalanine (Phe) to l-tyrosine (Tyr). The deficiency of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of Phe in the tissues and plasma of patients. The clinical characterization of this(More)
The number of diagnosed inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is growing constantly due to the improvement and widespread availability of analytical techniques. In 1982, a laboratory for the detection of IEM was set up in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and became a national reference centre for the diagnosis of these disorders. Ten thousand patients with signs and(More)
Phenylketonuria is the most frequent disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Treatment for phenylketonuric patients consists of phenylalanine intake restriction. However, there are patients who do not adhere to treatment and/or are not submitted to neonatal screening. These individuals are more prone to develop brain damage due to long-lasting toxic effects(More)
Aims l-Carnitine exerts an important role by facilitating the mitochondrial transport of fatty acids, but is also a scavenger of free radicals, protecting cells from oxidative damage. Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism, is currently treated with a special diet consisting of severe restriction of protein-enriched foods,(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent disturbance of amino acid metabolism being caused by severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. Untreated PKU patients present severe mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely estabilished. Despite the low-Phe diet, a considerable number of phenylketonuric patients present a mild to(More)
It is well established that the involvement of reactive species in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic genetic disorder biochemically characterized by elevated levels of phenylalanine (Phe). In previous studies, we verified that PKU patients (treated with a protein-restricted diet supplemented(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism, biochemically characterized by the accumulation of Phe and its metabolites in blood and tissues of affected patients. Treatment for PKU consists of a protein restricted diet supplemented with a mixture containing essential amino acids (other than Phe) and micronutrients. In recent(More)
Neurological dysfunction is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disorder are poorly understood. We determined the concentrations of all amino acids in plasma of patients with MSUD during crises (with severe CNS symptoms) and after recovery in the hope of detecting possible(More)