First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect… (More)
Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af.
BACKGROUND Evolution of resistance by target pests is the main threat to the long-term efficacy of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins. Cry2 proteins play a pivotal role in current Bt spray formulations and transgenic crops and they complement Cry1A proteins because of their different mode of action. Their presence is critical… (More)
The Toxin Complex (TC) is a large multi-subunit toxin first characterized in the insect pathogens Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, but now seen in a range of pathogens, including those of humans. These complexes comprise three protein subunits, A, B and C which in the Xenorhabdus toxin are found in a 4:1:1 stoichiometry. Some TCs have been demonstrated to… (More)