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First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect… (More)
Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af.
AIMS To identify known vip genes and to detect potentially novel vip genes in a collection of 507 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. METHODS AND RESULTS Following a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy, four restriction patterns were found within the vip1 family: vip1Aa1, vip1Ba1/vip1Ba2 and vip1Ca. In the… (More)
For a long time, it has been assumed that the mode of action of Cry2A toxins was unique and different from that of other three-domain Cry toxins due to their apparent nonspecific and unsaturable binding to an unlimited number of receptors. However, based on the homology of the tertiary structure among three-domain Cry toxins, similar modes of action for all… (More)
Four collections comprising 507 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis have been analysed in this study. A different ecological origin characterizes each collection. Collection No. 1 was established from soil, dust, and grain samples from Spanish agricultural and non-cultivated soil, silos, and mills. Collection No. 2 is the result of a screening in olive-crop… (More)
The repat gene family encodes midgut proteins overexpressed in response to pathogen infection in the lepidopteran Spodoptera exigua. Up-regulation of repat genes has been observed after challenging the larvae with both Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and after infection with the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. In our study,… (More)
BACKGROUND Evolution of resistance by target pests is the main threat to the long-term efficacy of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins. Cry2 proteins play a pivotal role in current Bt spray formulations and transgenic crops and they complement Cry1A proteins because of their different mode of action. Their presence is critical… (More)
Cry1Fa insecticidal protein was successfully radiolabeled with (125)I-Na. Specific binding to brush border membrane vesicles was shown for the lepidopteran species Ostrinia nubilalis, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens, and Plutella xylostella. Homologous competition assays were performed to obtain… (More)
Three vip3 genes were identified in two Bacillus thuringiensis Spanish collections. Sequence analysis revealed a novel Vip3 protein class (Vip3C). Preliminary bioassays of larvae from 10 different lepidopteran species indicated that Vip3Ca3 caused more than 70% mortality in four species after 10 days at 4 μg/cm(2).
Previous studies reported "mode 1" Bacillus thuringiensis resistance in a colony of diamondback moths (NO-QA), and recently, this resistance has been mapped to an ABC transporter (ABCC2) locus. We report the lack of binding of Cry1Fa to insects derived from this colony and compare our data with those from other insects with ABCC2-associated resistance.