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INTRODUCTION Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. Whether risk is influenced by polymorphisms in other vitamin D metabolism genes and whether calcium or vitamin D intake modifies risk by genotype have not been evaluated. METHODS We conducted a nested case-control study within the Cancer(More)
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 10q11 (rs10993994) in the 5' region of the MSMB gene was recently implicated in prostate cancer risk in two genome-wide association studies. To identify possible causal variants in the region, we genotyped 16 tagging SNPs and imputed 29 additional SNPs in approximately 65 kb genomic region at 10q11 in a Swedish(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity has been associated with aggressive prostate cancer. The extent of this association, which varies by stage and grade, remains unclear. The role of recent weight change had not been previously examined. METHODS We examined body mass index (BMI) and weight change in relation to incident prostate cancer by disease stage and grade at(More)
BACKGROUND Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has consistently been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that the use of NSAIDs, particularly aspirin, may also be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the evidence remains limited. METHODS We(More)
Oxidative stress resulting from excess reactive oxygen species and/or deficiencies in antioxidant capabilities may play a role in breast cancer etiology. In a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women (505 cases and 502 controls) from the American Cancer Society Prevention II Nutrition Cohort, we examined relationships between breast cancer risk and(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at 11q13 were recently implicated in prostate cancer risk by two genome-wide association studies and were consistently replicated in multiple study populations. To explore prostate cancer association in the regions flanking these SNPs, we genotyped 31 tagging SNPs in a approximately 110 kb region at 11q13 in a Swedish(More)
BACKGROUND Dairy foods and their constituents (lactose and calcium) have been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis. Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. METHODS A pooled analysis of the(More)
With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet(More)
INTRODUCTION Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in promoting angiogenesis and is over-expressed in breast cancer. At least four polymorphisms in the VEGF gene have been associated with changes in VEGF expression levels: -2578C/A, -1154G/A and -634G/C are all located in the promoter region; and +936C/T is located in the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that long-term cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Whether the association is causal or due to confounding remains unclear. METHODS We examined cigarette smoking in relation to colorectal cancer mortality, evaluating smoking duration and recency and controlling for potential(More)