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Mild thermal injury to the hindpaw induces tactile allodynia distal to the injury. The allodynia is blocked by non-NMDA, but not NMDA, antagonists. The calcium permeable subtype of non-NMDA receptors is blocked by Joro spider toxin (JSTX). We injected JSTX or saline intrathecally followed after 5 min, 6 or 24 h by thermal injury. Rats receiving saline had(More)
Human CMV establishes a lifelong latent infection in the majority of people worldwide. Although most infections are asymptomatic, immunocompetent hosts devote an extraordinary amount of immune resources to virus control. To increase our understanding of CMV immunobiology in an animal model, we used a genomic approach to comprehensively map the C57BL/6 CD8 T(More)
Both human CMV and murine CMV (MCMV) elicit large CD8 T cell responses, despite the potent effects of viral genes that interfere with the MHC class I (MHC I) pathway of Ag presentation. To investigate the impact of immune evasion on CD8 T cell priming, we infected mice with wild-type (wt) MCMV or a mutant lacking its MHC I immune evasion genes,(More)
BACKGROUND Ca2+-permeable non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are found in the spinal dorsal horn and represent a presumptive target for glutamatergic transmission in nociceptive processing. This study characterized the analgesic profile associated with the blockade of these spinal receptors by intrathecally delivered agents known to act at these receptors,(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare patient-reported pain, provider- reported ease of use, and tissue sampling adequacy between endometrial biopsy instruments. METHODS Women presenting for endometrial biopsy were randomized to either Pipelle or Explora curette. The primary outcome was patient-reported pain with biopsy as measured by a 100-mm visual analog scale.(More)
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a well-studied model of natural β-herpesvirus infection. However, many questions remain regarding its control by and evasion of the immune response it generates. CD8 and CD4 T cells have both unique and redundant roles in control of the virus that differ based on the immunocompetence of the infected mice. MCMV encodes major(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) injected into the sciatic nerve and neutralizing antibodies to its receptor injected around the nerve are respectively associated with inducing and blocking pain behavior beginning 1 to 3 days post-injection. This study examined the acute effects of TNF applied around the nerve trunk on the mechanical threshold (determined(More)
CD8+ T cells can be primed by peptides derived from endogenous proteins (direct presentation), or exogenously acquired protein (cross-presentation). However, the relative ability of these two pathways to prime CD8+ T cells during a viral infection remains controversial. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) can infect professional antigen presenting cells (APCs),(More)
Anti-GD(2) antibodies have been shown to be effective for immunotherapy of neuroblastoma and other GD(2) enriched malignancies. Infusion of anti-GD(2) antibodies frequently causes spontaneous pain and allodynia for the duration of the immunotherapy and occasionally longer lasting neuropathic pain. Bolus intravenous injection of anti-GD(2) in rats initiates(More)
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered pathogen that has become a common contaminant of specific pathogen-free mouse colonies. MNV-1 induces a robust interferon-beta response and causes histopathology in some mouse strains, suggesting that it may impact other mouse models of infection. Despite many concerns about MNV-1 contamination, there is(More)