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Although interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion is essential for control of most intracellular pathogens, host survival often also depends on the expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10), a cytokine known to counteract IFN-gamma effector functions. We analyzed the source of regulatory IL-10 in mice infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.(More)
The cytokine interferon (IFN)-gamma regulates immune clearance of parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Recently, a family of IFN-gamma-induced genes has been identified that encode 48-kD GTP-binding proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. The prototype of this family,(More)
The ability of Salmonella typhimurium to interact with host cells is largely dependent on the function of a type III protein-secretion system encoded at centisome 63 of its chromosome. We have shown here that two targets of this protein-secretion system, SipB and SipC, are translocated into cultured intestinal Henle-407 cells. Translocation required the(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is critical for defense against pathogens, but the molecules that mediate its antimicrobial responses are largely unknown. IGTP is the prototype for a family of IFN-gamma-regulated genes that encode 48-kDa GTP-binding proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have generated IGTP-deficient mice and found that,(More)
We have carried out a functional analysis of invl and invJ, two Salmonella typhimurium genes required for this organism to gain access to cultured mammalian cells. These genes are located immediately down-stream of invC, a previously identified gene also required for bacterial invasion. Non-polar mutations in either of these genes rendered S. typhimurium(More)
The means by which Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, are recognized by mammalian immune systems are poorly understood. Here we wished to explore the contribution of the MyD88/Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in initiating murine responses to F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS). MyD88 knockout (KO) mice, but not TLR2-, TLR4-(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on newborn heart rate following the physiologic challenge of birth. DESIGN Nonexperimental, comparative. PARTICIPANTS A convenience sample of 130 full-term, healthy newborns who were born at a suburban medical center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cotinine is the major metabolite of(More)
IL-12-deficient mice exposed to nonlethal infections with intracellular pathogens or repeatedly immunized with a pathogen extract developed lowered but nevertheless substantial numbers of IFN-gamma(+) CD4(+) T cells compared to those observed in wild-type animals. Moreover, the CD4(+) responses in these knockout animals failed to default to a Th2 pattern.(More)
Resistance to Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to be mediated by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) produced by NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells. While studies of SCID mice have implicated NK cells as the source of the cytokine in acute infection, several lines of evidence suggest that IFN-gamma production by CD4(+) T lymphocytes also plays an important role in(More)
The genetic determinants that confer upon Salmonella the ability to enter non-phagocytic cells are largely encoded in a pathogenicity island located at centisome 63 of the bacterial chromosome. Molecular genetic analysis has revealed that this region encodes a specialized protein secretion system that mediates the export and/or translocation of putative(More)