Carmen Lopez Varela

Learn More
The way in which the brain deals with sensory information relies not only on feedforward processing of signals from the periphery but also on feedback inputs. This is the case of the massive projection back from layer 6 in the visual cortex to the thalamus, for which, despite being the greatest single source of synaptic contacts, the functional role still(More)
The reuniens nucleus in the midline thalamus projects to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus, and has been suggested to modulate interactions between these regions, such as spindle–ripple correlations during sleep and theta band coherence during exploratory behavior. Feedback from the hippocampus to the nucleus reuniens has received less(More)
The thalamus is a key structure that controls the routing of information in the brain. Understanding modulation at the thalamic level is critical to understanding the flow of information to brain regions involved in cognitive functions, such as the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the basal ganglia. Modulators contribute the majority of synapses that(More)
We used an in vitro slice preparation of the lateral geniculate nucleus in cats and rats to study morphological correlates of triadic circuitry in relay cells. The three triadic elements involve a retinal synapse onto a GABAergic dendritic terminal of an interneuron, a synapse from the same retinal terminal onto a relay cell dendrite, and a synapse from the(More)
In June 2006, reported outbreaks of norovirus on cruise ships suddenly increased; 43 outbreaks occurred on 13 vessels. All outbreaks investigated manifested person-to-person transmission. Detection of a point source was impossible because of limited investigation of initial outbreaks and data sharing. The most probable explanation for these outbreaks is(More)
Two types of thalamic nuclei have been recognized: first order, which relay information from subcortical sources, and higher order, which may relay information from one cortical area to another. We have recently shown that muscarinic agonists depolarize all first order and most higher order relay cells but hyperpolarize a significant proportion of higher(More)
Coupled oscillations are hypothesized to organize the processing of information across distributed brain circuits. This idea is supported by recent evidence, and newly developed techniques promise to put such theoretical framework to mechanistic testing. We review evidence suggesting that individual oscillatory cycles constitute a functional unit that(More)
BACKGROUND Low-frequency (delta/theta) oscillations in the thalamocortical system are elevated in schizophrenia during wakefulness and are also induced in the N-methyl-D-asparate receptor hypofunction rat model. To determine whether abnormal delta oscillations might produce functional deficits, we used optogenetic methods in awake rats. We illuminated(More)
In order to understand economic growth and distribution one should not primarily look for models concerned with equilibrium, but for a classical model –a model in which the profit rate is the central variable. In capitalism, capital accumulation and growth depend on the profit rate, and the functional distribution of income is determined by it – together(More)
The hippocampus is critical for the storage of new autobiographical experiences as memories. Following an initial encoding stage in the hippocampus, memories undergo a process of systems-level consolidation, which leads to greater stability through time and an increased reliance on neocortical areas for retrieval. The extent to which the retrieval of these(More)