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The toxicity and toxicokinetics of tungsten blue oxide (TBO) were examined. TBO is an intermediate in the production of tungsten powder, and has shown the potential to cause cellular damage in in vitro studies. However, in vivo evidence seems to indicate a lack of adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to address the dearth of longer-term(More)
Tungsten is a relatively rare metal with numerous applications, most notably in machine tools, catalysts, and superalloys. In 2003, tungsten was nominated for study under the National Toxicology Program, and in 2011, it was nominated for human health assessment under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System. In 2005,(More)
Macromolecular binding of metals is thought to be a prerequisite for induction of metal sensitivity. In this study, the binding of cobalt(II) to blood components was investigated. Incubation of 60Co with blood yielded a mean erythrocyte binding of 10.3 X 10(7) Co atoms/cell. Incubation of the metal with serum resulted in binding of 8.3 X 10(-9) mol Co/mg(More)
Due to unknown effects of the potential exposure of the terrestrial environment to tungsten substances, a series of toxicity studies of sodium tungstate (Na(2) WO(4) ) was conducted. The effect on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival and reproduction was examined using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 222. No effect on(More)
Although aquatic toxicity data exists for tungstate substances, insufficient data of high quality and relevancy are available for conducting an adequate risk assessment. Therefore, a series of acute and chronic toxicity tests with sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)) were conducted on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella(More)
At a metallurgical facility using thorium dioxide feed materials, a number of conventional direct- and indirect-bioassay methods were potentially suitable monitoring methodologies when industry-standard dose assessment methodologies were based upon ICRP recommendations issued in 1959. When the ICRP recommended a different dose assessment methodology in(More)
Under the European Community (EC) Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), the risk to humans may be considered controlled if the estimated exposure levels to a substance do not exceed the appropriate derived no-effect level (DNEL). In order to address worker exposure, DNELs are derived for the worker population. The(More)
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