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BACKGROUND Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS Five male volunteers(More)
Inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) with Y27632 stimulates sprouting by injured corticospinal tract and dorsal column tract axons, and accelerates functional recovery. However, regeneration of these axons across the glial scar was not observed. Here we examined the effects of Y27632 treatment on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression by astrocytes,(More)
Recently, we reported that chronically axotomized rubrospinal neurons survive for up to 1 year in an atrophied state. This finding contrasted previous work suggesting the death of up to 50% of the neurons over time. In the adult mouse, the majority of facial motoneurons appear to be lost as a result of chronic nerve resection. Here, we sought to determine(More)
Several molecules inhibit axonal growth cones and may account for the failure of central nervous system regeneration, including myelin proteins and various chondroitan sulfate proteoglycans expressed at the site of injury. Axonal growth inhibition by myelin and chondroitan sulfate proteoglycans may in part be controlled by Rho-GTPase, which mediates growth(More)
Axonal regeneration within the injured central nervous system (CNS) is hampered by multiple inhibitory molecules in the glial scar and the surrounding disrupted myelin. Many of these inhibitors stimulate, either directly or indirectly, the Rho intracellular signaling pathway, providing a strong rationale to target it following spinal cord injuries. In this(More)
Spinal cord injury leads to a devastating cascade of secondary complications that eventually results in the formation of scar tissue many times the size of the original insult. Inflammation plays a very important role towards the development of such scar, but paradoxically, at the same time it has neuroprotective properties. Only recently have we understood(More)
PURPOSE To direct the expression of gamma IFN to the eyes of transgenic mice as a means of investigating the possible role of this lymphokine in ocular pathogenesis. METHODS Transgenic mouse strains were generated by injection of a DNA fragment containing the murine alpha A-crystallin promoter fused to the coding sequence of murine gamma IFN gene. PCR and(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a cytokine with neutrophil chemotactic and activating properties, is known to be stimulated by IL-1. Fischer rats are more resistant to inflammation than Lewis rats probably due to a higher corticosteroid stress response. To determine the role of IL-8 in ocular inflammation, the effect of intravitreal injection of IL-8 was compared(More)
Under a variety of pathological conditions, glial cells of the retina proliferate. Although glial cell proliferation may play a role in a number of important retinal disorders, the regulation of this proliferative response is understood poorly. We examined the possibility that the function of certain ion channels in retinal glial cells may be linked with(More)