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Recently, we reported that chronically axotomized rubrospinal neurons survive for up to 1 year in an atrophied state. This finding contrasted previous work suggesting the death of up to 50% of the neurons over time. In the adult mouse, the majority of facial motoneurons appear to be lost as a result of chronic nerve resection. Here, we sought to determine(More)
Inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) with Y27632 stimulates sprouting by injured corticospinal tract and dorsal column tract axons, and accelerates functional recovery. However, regeneration of these axons across the glial scar was not observed. Here we examined the effects of Y27632 treatment on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression by astrocytes,(More)
Several molecules inhibit axonal growth cones and may account for the failure of central nervous system regeneration, including myelin proteins and various chondroitan sulfate proteoglycans expressed at the site of injury. Axonal growth inhibition by myelin and chondroitan sulfate proteoglycans may in part be controlled by Rho-GTPase, which mediates growth(More)
Axonal regeneration within the injured central nervous system (CNS) is hampered by multiple inhibitory molecules in the glial scar and the surrounding disrupted myelin. Many of these inhibitors stimulate, either directly or indirectly, the Rho intracellular signaling pathway, providing a strong rationale to target it following spinal cord injuries. In this(More)
Spinal cord injury leads to a devastating cascade of secondary complications that eventually results in the formation of scar tissue many times the size of the original insult. Inflammation plays a very important role towards the development of such scar, but paradoxically, at the same time it has neuroprotective properties. Only recently have we understood(More)
Aggrecan is one of the major chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expressed in the central nervous system. The signaling pathways activated downstream of cell interaction with aggrecan and with CSPGs in general and the importance of chondroitin sulfate-glycosaminoglycan side chains in their inhibition are unclear. Therefore, to analyze the effect of(More)
Glial cells, including astrocytes and macrophages/microglia, are thought to modulate pathological states following spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which is one of the cytokines regulating glial function, in a mouse contusive SCI model. We found that intraperitoneal injection of(More)
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