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Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem and is also required for the activation of NMDA receptors. The extracellular concentration of this neuroactive amino acid is regulated by at least two glycine transporters (GLYT1 and GLYT2). To study the localization and properties of these proteins, sequence-specific(More)
The high-affinity glycine transporter in neurons and glial cells is the primary means of inactivating synaptic glycine. Previous molecular cloning studies have indicated heterogeneity of glycine transporters in the CNS. Here the distribution of glycine transporter GLYT1 and GLYT2 transcripts and proteins in different regions and developmental stages of the(More)
We examined the effects of nine different tricyclic antidepressant drugs on the glycine uptake mediated by the glycine transporter 1b (GLYT1b) and glycine transporter 2a (GLYT2a) stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Desipramine, imipramine, clomipramine, nomifensine and mianserin had no effect on the activity of the glycine transporters.(More)
Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem of vertebrates. Glycine is accumulated into synaptic vesicles by a proton-coupled transport system and released to the synaptic cleft after depolarization of the presynaptic terminal. The inhibitory action of glycine is mediated by pentameric glycine receptors (GlyR) that belong(More)
High affinity sodium- and potassium-coupled L-glutamate transport into presynaptic nerve terminals and fine glial processes removes the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating glutamergic transmission. This report describes that the purified L-glutamate transporter from pig brain is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, predominantly at(More)
To elucidate the possible roles of the CNS neurotransmitters glycine and GABA in neuroendocrine paracrine signalling, we investigated their localizations, and those of their transport proteins, by confocal immunofluorescence and quantitative post-embedding immuno-electron microscopy in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. We show that A-cells contain(More)
The glycine transporter GLYT2 is present in neurons of the spinal cord, the brain stem and the cerebellum. This localization is similar to that of glycine immunoreactivity, suggesting a causal relationship between GLYT2 expression and glycine distribution. In this report, we analyzed if such a relationship does exist by using neuronal cultures derived from(More)
Glycine exerts multiple functions in the central nervous system, as an inhibitory neurotransmitter through activation of specific, Cl--permeable, ligand-gated ionotropic receptors and as an obligatory co-agonist with glutamate on the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In some areas of the central nervous system, glycine seems to be(More)
The functions of the high-affinity glycine transporters (GLYTs) in vivo have been revealed recently using gene-deletion studies. Results from studies of homozygous knockout mice have reinforced the idea that GLYTs might be specific clinical targets to modulate inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. In addition, molecular and behavioural analysis of(More)
A theoretical 12-transmembrane segment model based on the hydrophobic moment has been proposed for the transmembrane topology of the glycine transporter GLYT1 and all other members of the sodium- and chloride-dependent transporter family. We tested this model by introducing N-glycosylation sites along the GLYT1 sequence as reporter for an extracellular(More)